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Books on writing college essays

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Nursing Essay Essays and Research Papers. ?This essay will discuss the importance of needs assessment in nursing practice. It will also identify and explore the use of . appropriate tools that are required for college, the service user in the scenario. From the assessment tools selected, one will be prioritised and applied in relation to the service user's condition. The possible outcomes will then be discussed for future care planning for the service user. Finally, the essay will summarise what has been learnt from using the assessment tool. According. Allergy , Anxiety , Asthma 1947 Words | 8 Pages. Nursing is a profession which has evolved tremendously in the past century. From the dawn of time nursing has existed, in one . form or another.

This has contributed to it gaining recognition as a profession. According to. Mass Media. profession has been defined as “an occupation that requires extensive education or a calling that requires special knowledge, skill, and preparation”. Since healthcare varies between cultures, nurses have historically taken on many different roles, these include folk. Diploma in Nursing , Health care , Nurse 1409 Words | 4 Pages. Patrice L. Donald (426-41-5435) / Application Essay 429 Hillandale Drive / Jackson, MS 39212 During my childhood years I can vividly . remember the cold, late nights my mother was called upon to books college essays help save lives. Without the time to mothers find a baby sitter and due to my father’s occupation as a truck driver, she was forced to take me along with her to work. Although I was told to stay in the nurse’s lounge and watch television – I found the hospital corridors intriguing. I often would sneak out and. Academic degree , Care of residents , Employment 1041 Words | 3 Pages. Nursing Essay : Sample Reflecting on books essays, one’s Communication Skills Introduction Nursing students can enhance . their learning through reflection that is, reflecting on a situation that involves nursing care (Parker 2006, p.115).

In line with this thought, I shall reflect on an experience and discuss the communication skills I used or should have used during the patient encounter. Apa Term. I will use the three what model based on college essays, the work of essay Borton (1970) and Boud (1985) to help structure my reflection. Before. Communication , Health care , Health care provider 2075 Words | 7 Pages. What is nursing ? What exactly does it mean to nurse a patient, and how has this definition changed over the past centuries? What does the . On Writing. discipline of nursing consist of?

In this essay , I aim to attempt to underline answer these questions, along with the help of on writing essays a myriad of nursing researchers whose studies have helped to broaden my perspective on what exactly it is that I now do for a living. I will be discussing the different types of nursing knowledge that assists us as nurses to care for patients and. Florence Nightingale , Health care , Health care provider 1724 Words | 5 Pages. glance of reading the ANA code of ethics it seemed way beyond my “scope” of practice. I took a lot of time to read since it was kind of repetitive in a . sense. I’m a new graduate to nursing field and without experience I don’t have ample nursing philosophy yet. I have worked as a hospice nurse now for 3 weeks, and have a nursing perspective of apa term paper style 3 weeks. It’s hard to imagine the books on writing code of ethics being realistic, 100% of the time. As nurses we are humans and not robots. Pollution Global Essay. The ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses.

Ethics , Florence Nightingale , Health care 1313 Words | 4 Pages. excellent nursing care (Srivastava, 2007). However, health care provider’s roles and books on writing college essays responsibilities in meeting health care needs of the . clients in consideration to cultural perspective and diversity are getting more challenging and complicated due to mass thesis increased number of people from a group of books college essays multi-ethnic and multi-cultural society, which, in turn requires health care providers to acknowledge and understand variations of cultural healthcare beliefs, values and practices. Transcultural nursing is style, essential. Competence , Culture , Four stages of competence 2676 Words | 7 Pages. then concern is books essays, shown in the story surrounding the global issue patient’s danger of getting harmed and essays the patient’s wellbeing (Henneman, Gawlinski Guliano 2012). This . Essay Mothers. essay contains a rationale, a case scenario of a patient who shows respiratory deterioration and the appropriate nursing actions to be undertaken in such a case. Nurse’s role Nursing assessments and interventions which reduce unpleasant patient outcomes are vital. There are various reasons for books, worse patient outcomes like improper diagnosis. Blood , Nurse , Nursing 2090 Words | 6 Pages. Career Essay : Nursing Nursing is defined as “the practice or profession of caring for essay, the sick and books on writing college essays injured” . Essay Romeo. (thefreedictionary.com).

Regardless of the books college essays simplicity of the definition, nursing is a very complex career that as it might already imply, carries many responsibilities and complications. Literature And Juliet. Nonetheless, nursing is a rewarding career that offers intrapersonal growth and various career advancement opportunities. Within the books nursing profession there are many sub-groups depending on the degree. American Nurses Association , Bachelor of Science in Nursing , Health 1581 Words | 5 Pages. others in a time of need. According to U.S. Department of Labor, nurses have been described to “work to promote health, prevent disease, and help patients . Apa Term Style. cope with illness.” Nursing is a profession that blends the books college rich traditions of the past with the ever changing realities of today’s health care industry. The status of thesis statement nursing as a profession reflects the values that society places on their work and how nurses are to the good of society. I feel that having a caring and books on writing essays compassionate heart work together. Florence Nightingale , Hospital , Illness 2605 Words | 6 Pages. about the solution to the problem.

My passion for nursing manifested itself right from the childhood times when I would attend to my injured . classmates and playmates when everyone else took to their heels at the mere sight of blood. As a trained nurse, I have great yet mixed expectations for mothers, the career as I believe it is a calling. Unlike other professionals who just work with an intention of making money, or due to lack of something else to do, nursing for me is a passion. My first day in the hospital. Florence Nightingale , Hospital , Mental confusion 1492 Words | 4 Pages.

opportunity for books college essays, me to realize my dreams. As such, I expect to issue be the essays very best and therefore want to receive my education from xxx College, clearly the . leader in my desired field of uc application 2013 study. I ask that the xxx team accept me into the Bachelor of Science in Nursing Program, with my intention to ultimately enter into books the Master of Science Program in the specialized field of apa term paper style Nurse Anesthesia. If Clarkson College could only on writing college, admit one more student, why should it be me? I am confident that my personal character. College , Future , Health 1464 Words | 4 Pages.

and a hug. I learned that helping others made me feel good. It was something I loved. While becoming a woman I only english romeo, embrace this love even more. Books College Essays. Although I . did not comprehend that these small gestures as a child would soon lead me into media statement a path of nursing , I am truly aware that they have opened a place in my heart for college essays, a career as a nurse. Over the years I have assimilated the remedy of caring and understanding the medical needs of various individuals. I now understand that medical needs are not. Need , Nurse , Nursing 1344 Words | 4 Pages. REPORT: associates degree in media statement, nursing date: 12/4/2012 Descriptive Abstract This investigative report will go into detail about books college associate’s . degree in nursing . Nursing is the mass media statement largest health care profession in the U.S. Over 2.5 million strong, nurses make up the largest workforce within the books on writing essays clinical healthcare industry.

Nursing careers offer a wide variety of roles and a broad scope of responsibility. This report will also show graphs and essay underline steps to get into a nursing program as well as job titles. Academic degree , Associate's degree , Bachelor of books college essays Science 927 Words | 4 Pages. nation has been the focus of the National Academies, Institute of Medicine (IOM). It turns out to uc application personal statement 2013 be that clear from on writing their research that . nursing plays an important role in the conveying health care. Robert Woods Johnson Foundation (RWJF) was appointed by IOM the Committee through the interdisciplinary practiced that depend upon the initiative on the Upcoming of Nursing . Thesis. The aim was to create an achievement in favor of plan for anything that would let nurses to principal alteration in the direction to. Health , Health care , Health economics 1333 Words | 4 Pages. The field of books on writing nursing is very broad.

With a degree in essay underline, nursing , someone could enjoy a range of experiences. With a degree in . nursing from NCCU State University, there are a number of career paths I could follow such as, becoming a Registered Nurse Case Manager, Nurse Practitioner, or Patient Advocate. Within this research paper, I will explore the nursing job field and also give statistics on on writing essays, the nursing field. Nursing is a profession filled with limitless personal and professional rewards. When. Health care provider , Healthcare occupations , Hospital 1447 Words | 4 Pages. NURSING Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so . Uc Application Personal. they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and college essays quality of life. Nurses may be differentiated from mass other health care providers by their approach to patient care, training, and books on writing college scope of practice. Nurses practice in a wide diversity of practice areas with a different scope of practice and level of prescriber authority in each. Many nurses provide care within the. Christianity , Florence Nightingale , Health 793 Words | 3 Pages.

centuries, nursing has been constantly redesigned and developed into what we call now as modern nursing . It has been enhanced . every period of uc application personal 2013 time through education and scientific breakthroughs. It has evolved into a vocation founded upon specialized educational training, enhanced both by theory and books college essays constant research. Uc Application. In this essay , the history and development of nursing over the last two hundred years shall be addressed, followed by a discussion on the factors that led to on writing the development of nursing into. Bachelor of Science in apa term paper style, Nursing , Florence Nightingale , Master of books on writing essays Science in uc application 2013, Nursing 2217 Words | 7 Pages. 2014 THESIS STATEMENT AND PURPOSE The nursing shortage and high turnover rate in nursing impacts the economic life of every . health care organization in America. The purpose of this paper is to define and discuss the books essays approaches in leadership and management styles in literature essay and juliet, relation to the nursing shortage and nurse turnover using theories, principles, skills, and roles of the books leader versus manager and to identify this student’s professional philosophy of nursing and personal leadership style. INTRODUCTION. Florence Nightingale , Health care , Leadership 1170 Words | 7 Pages.

0916-484-5004 DEGREE: Bachelor of Science in Nursing Las Pinas College College of Nursing March 29, 2001 Passed the . Integrated Comprehensive Licensure Exam June 10, 2001 Passed the Midwifery Board Exam November 10, 2009 WORK EXPERIENCE: Las Pinas City Medical Center Las Pinas City, Philippines Staff Nurse (OB GYNE, MEDICAL AND SURGICAL WARD) August 22, 2001 – December 21, 2004 Clinical Instructor supervising: Nursing Midwifery Caregiving students in OB GYNE and Pediatric. Chavacano language , Medicine , Nursing 445 Words | 4 Pages. ?Description It is my first day of about for kids work after graduating from nursing school. I am currently in a remote island of Maldives. It is a small . Books College Essays. hospital consisting of mass media statement 50 beds and college almost 20 staffs working in 3 shifts.

I came for morning duty and the nursing in-charge shown me maternal and surgical ward as my first work place. After taking handing over from the night shift staff I made everything ready for the ward round as the doctors will be here in underline title, no time. Just before the doctors arrival we got a patient. Existential quantification , Hospital , Management 819 Words | 2 Pages. Nursing and Technology In his textbook, Medical Sociology, 12th edition, Dr. William Cockerham (2007), a medical sociologist at the . University of on writing essays Alabama, Birmingham, describes nurses as being ultimately responsible for the nature and quality of all nursing care patients receive during their stay in a medical setting. Uc Application Personal Statement. According to Cockerham (2007), they also are responsible for following the instructions of physicians in order to ensure the best plan of action is implemented to on writing college essays better serve the. Health care , Health care provider , Medical history 1108 Words | 3 Pages. of the mass media statement information and knowledge gained, by suggesting how these skills will be applied to the student nurses future practice.

Disease management improves . the college essays quality of a patient’s lifestyle and activities of daily living, through education and nursing intervention on their condition, empowering them to take a more significant role in their own care. It considers all additional factors to for kids the actual medicinal treatment for the disease, providing a holistic approach. It is college essays, therefore imperative that. Epidemiology , Health , Health care 986 Words | 3 Pages. projects it turns out to be a little more complex than that. Growing up my ideas and global issue passions would always seem to be changing but when I finally became set . in my ways at least in knowing what I would like to books essays pursue the Nursing Program was up to global issue par.

I chose to do mine on Nursing in the ED (emergency department) because this is a field I would love to books college essays go into so I can be of service to those in literature romeo, need of any medical care, to always have a stable job to rely on, and further more to be able to excel in. Academic degree , Bachelor of books on writing essays Science in Nursing , Bachelor's degree 1449 Words | 4 Pages. MEN AND THE PROFFESION OF NURSING The following essay will look into the history of nursing ; it will be looking . at where men fit into uc application personal 2013 nursing history and will draw upon some examples of men in the role of nursing it will then move forward to times where men began to books college essays disappear from the nursing role and reasons why. The effects that Florence Nightingale had to the changes of nursing will also be investigated. Caring as an art and the science in nursing will also be discussed and how men are perceived. Florence Nightingale , Nurse , Nursing 1951 Words | 6 Pages. Argumentative Essay Social responsibility is an ideal topic for debate; there have been mixed results for companies and individuals who have . pursued social responsibility. There is apa term, also the books on writing essays question of whether social responsibility should be motivated by a perceived benefit.This type of 2013 essay is books essays, based on personal, philosophical theories on the necessity of social responsibility backed up with facts about previous social responsibility efforts.

For example, an essay could be about on writing essays how giving support to disaster. Essay , Essays , Qualitative research 555 Words | 3 Pages. Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of . English Literature And Juliet. 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and few points to remember while writing an essay in the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam. Books On Writing Essays. How to write an essay ? 1. Analyze the prompt. Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. English Essay Romeo. formal an attempt or effort. Books Essays. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in media thesis, the sense ‘test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages.

probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class. An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . On Writing College. certain idea, claim, or concept and paper style backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and books on writing college support). English and literature teachers use them on global issue, a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of classes. Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages.

Nursing is one of the most respected and rewarding occupations in the healthcare industry. An exemplary nurse exhibits qualities such as . empathy, selflessness, and the ability to work well under pressure as a team and also independently. Although the nurses job description focuses on patient care, nurses are also the patient’s number one advocate; the doctor may diagnose and order treatments for the patient, but the nurse is the one whom the patient sees and establishes a connection most. Nurses . Bachelor of Science in books on writing college essays, Nursing , Diploma in Nursing , Health care 921 Words | 2 Pages. BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words) Essay Due on essay, Monday 14th of January 2013 You are required to write an . essay supported with reference to the academic literature that answers the following question: • You have recently been appointed to your first management post following graduation. You are keenly aware that as part of your management role you will be responsible for managing change and anticipate drawing on your BM 6105 studies to help you achieve success. Essay , Management , Organization 690 Words | 3 Pages. Legal and Ethical Parameters of Professional Nursing Practice Essay One. Legal and ethical parameters of professional nursing practice essay one Professional nurses encounter a variety of legal ethical . and bioethical issues on on writing, a daily basis. For this reason, it is essential that all nurses are aware of current state and national legislation, acts and guidelines and the implications of these for nursing practices as well as legal processes, principles of open disclosure and the role of a coroner in the health sector.

In this way, nurses can adhere to the overarching guidelines. Florence Nightingale , Health care , Health care provider 881 Words | 3 Pages. Semester 1, 2013 Assessment Task 2:Critical Essay IDEAS in MANAGEMENT Writing instructions and Marking Rubric This assessment task is . an ESSAY . Mass Media Thesis Statement. The RMIT College of college essays Business requires you to use a particular style of essay writing which involves both the underline title way the essay is structured and books on writing the way that you acknowledge other people’s ideas used in your work. The structuring of an essay is very clearly described in the RMIT Study and Learning Centre Essay Writing Skills Online Tutorial available. Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages.

their motivation was will determine if their act was moral or not. By betraying his own kin Momutu decided to give up his humanity, while on the other . hand, Amoo gave up his own freedom to mothers for kids protect his family. Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and college essays neatness have merit Before writing out the exam: Write down their key words, listings, etc, as they are fresh in your mind. Otherwise these ideas may be blocked (or be unavailable) when the for kids time comes to books on writing essays write. African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will . Underline. be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. On Writing Essays. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011).

Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and Writing Oxford University. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. essential foundation of thesis nursing practise; it is primarily dependant upon verbal and non-verbal communication. Books. Encompassing both speech and . behavioural aspects, efficient delivery and receiving of the nurse-patient messages initiates advantageous relationships, or contrarily, generates significant repercussions if applied ineffectively, thus affecting the quality of the nurse-patient relationship. This essay will discuss how effective verbal and non-verbal communication in essay about mothers, nursing practice will facilitate.

Communication , Hearing , Interpersonal relationship 1688 Words | 7 Pages. Centre for Language Study Pre-Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4: Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is your assessed essay . and books you will need to write an essay of 1200-1400 words. This is the same length as the personal 2013 essay in WRITING TASK 3. WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of your mark for writing on the Pre-Sessional course. Please select a title from the on writing college essays list here: 1. Discuss the impact a particular theory has had on apa term style, your area of books on writing study in terms of application, use and apa term style limitations. 2. Explain the problems. Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages.

FUTURE OF NURSING * SUTHA FERNANDO – DATE: 12-23-2012 GRAND CANYAN UNIVERSITY ABSTRACT The Institute of Medicine has thoroughly . analyzed the Future of Nursing and submitted report. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) is a nonprofit organization that works independently, provides unbiased and authoritative advice to general public as well as government. In this essay we would discuss about the significance of books on writing college report and recommendations of IOM. In 2010 the IOM has advised the Government. Health , Health care , Health economics 1009 Words | 4 Pages. adult. Global Issue Essay. But that would lead us to have and be ourselves of on writing college essays what nursing school has done for us other than that we would be sole individuals . showing our individualism of going through nursing of being sleep deprived, altered mental status, ineffective coping through two years of training to absorbed and add to romeo our growth “of an immature nursing adult to a mature” to a “MATURE AND NURSING ADULT” .The inimical expectation of books on writing essays the” nursing school farm” (as in a barricade of sheep’s),because we want to. Bachelor of Science in Nursing , Florence Nightingale , Healthcare occupations 1497 Words | 4 Pages.

Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the word ‘hate’ in the Heian era. Is an essay about mothers, opinion considered hostile if it focuses on college essays, honesty and media transparency of books on writing essays a situation? “Hateful Things” is an opinionated extract from the book “Pillow Talk” written by Sei Shonagon. Apa Term Paper Style. Pillow Talk is on writing college essays, a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by paper style Shonagon. Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. trying to know everyone in the class.

After that here comes the books on writing big turn, homework and writing essays . I have never written an . Uc Application Statement 2013. essay in my life while I was living in India. Books On Writing College. It was really hard for me to write down our thought on the given assignment. English Essay Romeo. My English is not good and grammar is worse. I was really afraid of books on writing college essays writing, I didn’t want to tell anyone. I missed my first essay due date and even second essay due date. After some days Mrs. Danielo called me in her office during office hours.

She told. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by someone who is culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. For . example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate. For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in your life when you realized the significance of being literate in essay, this fashion. Did you have trouble using a computer to books register for classes? Did you fit into a subculture because you learned to issue essay speak its. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is on writing essays, often judged within the first few sentences.

Just as . the news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a “danger in our water supply,” a writer must try to bring the reader from uc application statement his or her world into the world of the essay . This is done with a few choice words at the beginning of the essay : the infamous hook. It is not easy to think of books college essays how to make someone want to read an essay about a novel. It’s not even easy to. Essay , Good and underline title evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. peripheral cannulation for college, TPN.

I told them they should be open and essay underline title honest, act with integrity and on writing essays uphold the essay title reputation of their profession. They must . On Writing. inform someone in authority if they experience problems that prevent them working within their code of nursing or others nationally agreed standards. I checked their IV monitoring chart and there was no continuous documentation on the condition of essay underline patient’s hand. I believe thrombophlebitis won’t occur immediately. On Writing College Essays. Firstly there will be sign and symptom. Florence Nightingale , Intravenous therapy , Nurse 2007 Words | 6 Pages. goal. For Kids. I graduated from Highline Community College last year with honor degree. Even though I already obtained my AA degree in Pre- Nursing , . gaining my knowledge in the medical field is not enough for on writing college essays, me. I want to gain more clinical patient experience and help people with all my heart. In order to issue strengthen my clinical experience, I also took the CNA class at books essays Blossom Nursing Assistant Training School while studying at HCC and received the literature romeo CNA license.

Currently, I’m working at Stafford Suites Senior. Care of books essays residents , Health care , Healthcare 1647 Words | 9 Pages. Japan Journal of global Nursing Science (2008) 5, 71 doi:10.1111/j.1742-7924.2008.00111.x EDITORIAL Nursing theory – . remembering our future Modern nursing theory began with Virginia Henderson in the 1960s. Books On Writing College. In her grand theory of literature essay nursing , she de?ned nursing as “assisting individuals to gain independence in books college essays, the performance of activities contributing to essay about mothers for kids health or its recovery (Henderson, 1966, p. College Essays. 15). Since the 1970s, the media thesis statement literature on books on writing, nursing theory has focused upon two levels of nursing theories: the. Health economics , Healthcare , Medicine 666 Words | 3 Pages. ?Sample Essay / Essay Construction Other places where you can get assistance: 1. View the YouTube videos in the . “Referencing/Literacy/Assignment Resources” tab in the vUWS site for essay and juliet, APNP (401007). On Writing College Essays. 2. Visit an essay about mothers, Online Writing Lab. Purdue OWL is a great resource: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/ 3. Make an appointment to see a PCALS officer (remember, they get very busy, so make an appointment well in advance of your assignment due date): NM_Parramatta_Literacy_Tutors@uws.edu.au NM_Cambpelltown_Literacy_Tutors@uws. Awareness , Consciousness , Nurse 831 Words | 3 Pages. Pursuing A Nursing Career Pursuing A Nursing Career Nursing Industry: A world of Opportunity . Nursing Industry: A world of Opportunity ? Flexible schedule – convenient shifts to fit your schedule ? Challenge - everyday a new challenge; no boredom. . ? Accomplishment – Become an outstanding person ? Pride - Helping people on on writing college, a day to day basis ? Wisdom/Knowledge – Become familiar with the human anatomy and the medical world. ? Flexible schedule – convenient shifts.

Associate's degree , Bachelor of Science in Nursing , College 802 Words | 4 Pages. ? WHAT COMPASSIONATE CARE MEANS TO NURSING The vision set out by the Chief Nursing Officer for England and Department of . Health Nursing Director recognised the importance of addressing the quality of care following the failings at Winterbourne View and Mid-Staffordshire Hospital (Cummings, J and Bennett, V, 2012). The Chief Nursing Officer for England and Department of essay for kids Health Nursing Director consequently founded the six essential values of a care giver; care, compassion, communication, competence. Compassion fatigue , Health care , Health care provider 1883 Words | 6 Pages. Abstract Nursing is one of the oldest careers in history. It has grown tremendously since the beginning of the profession and strives forward . in hopes to attain more advancement in the medical field. Essays. Along the years, there have been several controversies regarding nursing as a profession. Essay Underline. In this paper we will discuss what nursing professionalism is and why we as nurses need to books on writing essays remain a professional icon in the occupation. This paper will also summarize two nursing articles regarding nursing professionalism. Diploma in Nursing , Florence Nightingale , Nurse 1326 Words | 4 Pages.

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Health , Health care , Health care provider 833 Words | 3 Pages. confidentiality as enshrined in The Code ( Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) 2008). Nick, a gentleman, aged 51, was admitted to hospital with . vomiting and acute abdominal pain. Nick’s experience of admission, examination and testing were mainly positive. Books Essays. Nick’s postoperative experiences were extremely negative. Media Thesis Statement. Most aspects of The Code (NMC 2008) were observed on admittance nonetheless, it appears that little of The Code was applied postoperatively.

This essay will examine the books on writing college essays positive and negative. Health , Health care , Health care provider 1516 Words | 5 Pages. History of Nursing Research Worksheet Essay. Material History of Nursing Research Worksheet There have been many influential publications, agencies, and people in mass statement, the field of . nursing research. Write 1–3 sentences in each cell of the table below to describe the importance, goal, or influence of each item.

Publications First publication date and importance: Nursing Research First published: 1952 Importance: “ Nursing Research covers key issues, including health promotion, human responses to illness, acute care nursing research, symptom. Health , Health care , Health economics 990 Words | 4 Pages.

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Racial and Ethnic Minorities Essay. History of racial and ethnic minorities in policing. Racial and ethnic discrimination are actions that are morally wrong because they result to violation of peoples rights. Humanity is guided by the principle of equality that calls for equal treatment of books essays all individuals, claiming that racial differences should not hinder equal treatment of one particular group. Equality is the essay act of treating all people as equals irrespective of college essays color, gender, age and ethnicity. The context of the equality principle differs from one factual environment to paper, the other. For instance, in politics, equality refers to equivalent access to public resources, pay and job opportunities. Conversely, in criminal justice, the on writing college essays equality principle means the application of the media thesis statement rule of law to all individuals. Equality in criminal justice therefore, discourages instances of discrimination by the police towards any particular group of individuals. The history of ethnic and racial minorities in policing has been evident since slavery period. Various reforms and amendments have been developed in on writing essays, the United States criminal justice system to ensure fair treatment of all individuals by the police in policing.

The world race is used to refer to a particular group of people who share a common biological inheritance that makes them distinct from those in their neighborhood. Conversely, ethnicity can be described as a cultural trend that defines a person’s way of english romeo and juliet life. The world race does not have a profound foundation and its existence does not have any biological value. Race is a literal word that was developed by individuals to essays, refer to a particular group of essay underline title people. In the United States, the concept of race developed during slavery period, where some races were considered lesser than others. Books! The criterion of race has been used by the US law enforcement systems in determining people’s rights. These events and activities gave rise to racism, a social practice whose virtues are racially based depending on a group’s race. Essay Title! Racism was therefore, practiced in three different aspects including personal intolerance, institutional racism and ideological racism. Ethnicity and racism were used as factors of consideration by the police in the course of performing their day to day activities of policing (Harrell 48). Ethnicity and race has been used as one of the indicators to determine people’s attitude towards the police.

The history of criminal justice and college essays policing in America works under racial and ethnic lines. Racism has been a major problem facing police organizations, despite the military trainings and policies that are laid before them. In criminal justice, policing lacks equal representation of every society. Global Issue Essay! This has caused the minority groups to suffer discrimination from the whites because they associate their race with violence behavior and crimes. The methods of social control used by the police to the American communities differ according to ones race and books on writing college ethnicity.

Most of the crime blames are placed on minority groups than the whites. Institutional racism was and is the major and essay about mothers common form of racism practiced towards individual groups in the United States, which are also referred to as “petit apartheid”. It constitutes the interactions between citizens and the police, featuring their relationship with particularly the minority groups. Books College Essays! The police interact with people either openly or informally as they execute their day to day activities. The concept of petit apartheid was used by policing in the past, which determined most of their actions and decisions made within the criminal justice system. The apartheid concept promoted racism in mothers, policing, with the ethnic minorities facing biased treatments from the police like rough treatment and insults (Weitzer and Steven 34). The historical context of books college racism and ethnicity in policing.

The history of racial and ethic minority discrimination is as old as creation. The United States of America is a multi-racial state, with members from different societies including African Americans, Asians, and essay underline Mexicans that form the minority community. These minority groups have contributed greatly to the US culture and economic stability. There has been a tendency, however, by the whites to discriminate these groups. Members of the minority groups have faced great challenges throughout their life in the United States because of underrepresentation in almost all sectors that can make their living equal to those of the Americans. The Criminal Justice department is among those sectors that are leading with actions of discrimination. In policing, ethnic minorities are greatly discriminated in the process of recruitment, police discretion, courts and in the process of criminal justice. American criminology is known for racial and ethnic discrimination in criminal justice and policing since its introduction. Books On Writing College Essays! Racial and apa term ethnic minorities’ discrimination in policing dates back to books on writing college essays, earlier times in the history of America and has been receiving consisted scrutiny to ensure equal representation of all the American societies by the Criminal Justice Department (Sampson and Janet 360). Racial and ethnic disparities are not a new norm in the American criminal justice system.

In the antebellum period, ethnic and apa term paper racial discrimination in policing was a common practice among the police. African Americans were the major victims of racial discrimination because of their color and on writing essays origin. Throughout the history of the United States, racial discrimination began with the slavery system, extending through segregation and media thesis statement exclusion, which were practiced both formally and essays informally through court decisions and global issue policing legislations. On Writing College! Slaves were not considered as human beings, but servants to essay title, their masters because their race categorized them as inferior to the whites, since the beginning of slavery and slave trade in the seventeenth century to 1865. Regulations were put against slaves, with each of them having a slave tag that denied them the opportunity to enjoy the college essays enormous freedom enjoyed by the whites. Slaves were exposed to plantation life to provide free and cheap exploitative labor through brutal treatment that was against human nature. They did not have any rights and were expected to pollution issue, remain captives. In the advent of the civil war, slavery was abolished and the Bill of Rights Amendments were revised to bring to books on writing essays, an end the practice. This was aimed at ensuring that all individuals were granted equal freedom regardless of their ethnicity and global issue race, and equal protection and treatment by the criminal justice system(Sharp and on writing essays Susie 754).. After the Civil War, actions of media thesis statement discrimination continued to persist.

This was facilitated by the Jim Crow laws that were adopted by many states, which failed to effectively rationalize structures of discrimination in economic, social and legal forums. For instance, the African Americans could not participate in on writing essays, voting system because they did not have the essay about mothers right to on writing essays, vote. Additionally, they were racially separated from the whites under the established doctrine of essay mothers “separate but equal.” The courts, however, held on to the Jim Crow laws. African Americans faced great challenges between mid 1800 to early 1900, caused by the practice of racism and their relations with the police were not perfected. In the twentieth century, however, African Americans were accorded legal rights and the doctrine of “separate but equal” was abolished. Racal segregation was highly rejected and the civil rights required all people to be treated equally.

Other minority groups who existed in the United States included the books college essays Latinos, Alaska Natives and American Indians. These groups were not an exception and faced the same treatment and forms of apa term paper style segregation as the African Americans. All the minority groups in America since slavery period until 1900s faced criminal victimization from the books essays police. They were considered as violent and criminals. This led to essay underline, the number of college essays minority individuals associated with actions of crime and violent behavior to increase compared to that of the whites. Ethnic minority groups lived in slums and areas characterized by global poverty, where instances of crimes were highly practiced. Conversely, the books on writing college essays whites owned mansions and lived in personal 2013, areas that had sufficient security from the police. Policing activities were biased and the minority groups faced great challenges from the police (Rosenbloom and Niobe 430). Biased policing practices raised many questions about the on writing essays literature of the criminal justice system towards racial differences. This was facilitated by the increased number of minority groups that were alleged with criminal activities.

Study conducted by various scholars showed that the criminal justice system was racially segregated and the ethnic minorities were underrepresented. A large percentage of the minorities remained unemployed because all the jobs available were allocated to mothers for kids, the whites. The police departments did not execute fair policing. On Writing Essays! In their study, Dobbins and Bass found out personal that the police were prejudice. They urged police officers to ensure fairness and equality when dealing with all individuals to improve their social relations with the minority groups. Race, crime, justice and criminology.

Debates about racial and ethnic disparities were introduced in the criminal justice system by Christiansons, who collected state-by-state lists concerning the number of black individuals imprisoned compared to that of the whites. According to his study, Christiansons found out that the number of blacks imprisoned was by far large that the whites. These conclusions were based on the general population that was present in all prisons in the United States. After this study, Christiansons developed the college essays conclusion that the disproportionate representation of blacks and about mothers for kids whites in the criminal justice system was racially based. Is arguments were later contrasted by Klerk who after reviewing several studies came to the conclusion that the on writing college criminal justice was not in way based on literature and juliet racial differences.

He added that the increased number of blacks in prisons was facilitated by their violent behavior. Christiansons encountered a lot of criticism that was developed because of his argument that criminal involvement and crimes were not fairly judged. Most the crimes that required sentencing were concerned with blacks, an idea that Christiansons rejected. College! Blumstein, a member of the criminal justice argued that racial differences were considered as a factor when arresting criminals. This was contributed by the desperate nature of the paper style African-Americans who lived in slum isolated areas and did not have any activity to books, engage them.

Blumstein concluded that 80percent of individuals imprisoned in courts were African-Americans, who were judged with serious disparities and violent crimes. Using information from a survey conducted by the National Crime Survey (NCS), Langan tried to avoid questions that required him to give responses concerning bias in criminal justice system. The surveys contained information provided by African-Americans who had been victims of the police behavior. After comparing the reports provided by direct victims of racial and ethnic discrimination in policing and the reports of NCS, Langan concluded that the criminal justice system was biased. This information amounted to the increased racial disparities that were experienced in the court system. From this information, it was realized that ethnic and racial minority discrimination in policing was an ideology of the past. Racial and ethnic minority disparities in policing. Evidence of racial and ethnic minority discrimination in policing has been proved through analysis of arrests, police contacts, intake decisions and paper style referrals.

Research conducted from the juvenile courts showed that 80 percent of books college arrests made were centered on blacks. This is because the police exercised a lot of power on mass media thesis statement crimes that were not weighty compared to books essays, those that required intervention of the juvenile court system. When executing their duties, the police were featured African-Americans because of their race and ethnicity. According to research there is no great difference between the essay title whites. This is according to Michael Griffith who stated that he had stayed with white children for the better part of his life.

In addition, Michael Griffith tried to interpret about his experience from the radicalized political leaders in his country. According to Griffith, the verdict set in court could be used to determine the worthiness of the blacks in the society. He further states that after the essays judgment concerning two whites who were convicted for underline title murder, a certain reporter questioned whether the convictions had any connection with the worthiness of the black people in American society. As revealed through research the verdict was not based on the value of the life of blacks, the worthiness of all human life in college essays, the country. Race relations were first brought into worldwide view on the onset of title Howard Beach incident. This was a four men case with whom their car broke down as the travelled in the section of on writing Howard Beach. These involved ‘Griffith’, aged 23, ‘Sandiford’, 36 ‘Timothy Grimes’, 18 and ‘Curtis Sylvester’, 19. One of them was left on mass media the car as the rest walked in the major part of the beach for help. A group of white men spotted the as they were on on writing essays their way from a neighborhood party. The picture presented here was that one group was black men, and the other white men. The black men were spotted by the whites in a pizza parlor as they gave themselves something to eat.

The white men referred to the black as ‘riggers’ as the title moved on to attack them at the pizza. The whites pounced on the black men as they strolled on the streets. They taunted the blacks after which they begun to beat them. It was a serious assault that left one of the black unconscious. Essays! With one of the blacks diving through a big hole, staggering to a shore park way for safety, he met with death in which a court officer and son of policeman driving an automobile struck and killed him. Majority of the witnesses were whites who chased the whites and called up the police.

The police reached the scene and found two blacks, one lying dead while the other walked along the parkway dazed. Mass Media! Instead of the police believing the on writing college essays injured man and treat him as a victim of the beating, the treated him as a crime suspect. When the bare fact of this case was reached, in that the attack was ethnic based, and uc application personal 2013 the whites attacked them only college essays, because they were blacks, an essay and juliet, alarm was widely raised. This resulted in a widespread immediate attention. This crime was condemned, and demands of quick action demanded by the mayor, black leaders, and the police. The report given by the researcher as he tried to answer the reporter was against essays, the interpretation of other researchers who had varied arguments concerning the relations of the race between the West Indians and the blacks.

In addition, there are various procedural points, which can be used in understanding the racial disparity of the minorities, particularly, in the justice system. The enforcement agencies in the United States submit many of the paper cases by on writing essays juveniles in courts of the law although various people including parents and teachers petition the youths as well. Research also indicates that although the responsibility of the uc application personal police is to ensure that the inequality in the juveniles in limited through the juvenile system, the differences in juveniles based on books on writing college essays race is enhanced by the police. Details contained in all approaches of investigation by essay underline title Michael Griffith and co-ethics showed that the criminal justice system was biased. Books College! The police carried out a lot of english literature essay attacks on African-Americans, who lived in slum areas because they were poor. After interpretation of reports provided by different people, it was found out that most of the crimes were racially based. Past criminal records also showed that the criminal justice system was biased. Feel free to contact our custom essay writing service if you need a high-quality custom written paper. College Essays! All essays and research papers are written by professional academic writers. About For Kids! Get professional essay writing help now!

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15 Quick Tips for on writing college, a Winning Resume. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. As part of the celebration of Quintessential Careers#8217;s 15th anniversary, we#8217;re presenting lists of 15 tips on global, some of the books most essential topics in college, job search, and career. Yikes! You find yourself in essay title a position to on writing college essays, craft a resume or update an existing resume. So much resume advice floats around out essay for kids there, making you wonder about the best approach. Books On Writing Essays? The tips we offer here capture the most important aspects of an effective resume. You can scarcely go wrong if you incorporate these nuggets into your next resume. Here#8217;s our list of the 15 best tips for job-seekers in crafting a winning resume. Uc Application Statement 2013? Your resume must be sharply focused and target your desired career goal with precision.

Job-seekers tend to on writing college essays, forget that employers review resumes extremely quickly #8212; often in english and juliet just a few seconds. An employer taking such a quick glance should be able to immediately grasp what you want to do and gain a sense of the value you can contribute to college, the organization. The resume must focus on key strengths that position the pollution global issue candidate to books on writing, meet a specific need and target specific jobs/employers. In other words, employers don#8217;t consider resumes that aren#8217;t focused on a job#8217;s specific requirements to be competitive. Employers and recruiters expect your resume to be precisely tailored to the position you#8217;re applying for.

The reader should be able to tell at a glance exactly what job you#8217;re targeting and what need you will fill. The reader should never have to guess or wade through copious text to determine what job you want and what you#8217;d be good at. Apa Term Paper? An unfocused resume is a time-waster for the employer. Ways you can sharpen your focus include a headline atop your resume stating the type of college, job you seek, a branding statement that positions you for paper style, a specific job or type of job (headlines and branding statements are often used in books college essays combination), a Qualifications Summary or Professional Profile section, a section listing your Core Competencies/Proficiencies/Areas of Expertise, strategic organization of your resume to position you for the job you seek, and uc application statement 2013 bullet points describing your experience in a way that is specifically tailored to the position you seek. To ensure a sharp focus, you will likely need to create multiple versions of your resume, building a boilerplate version that you then customize to each specific positions. Today#8217;s resume must be keyword-rich. The majority of resumes submitted to employers today are handled by Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS), which Wikipedia defines as software applications #8220;that enable the electronic handling of corporate recruitment needs.#8221; The systems store #8220;candidate data inside a database to books on writing, allow effective searching, filtering, and routing of applications.#8221; Because applicant tracking software and about mothers keyword-searchable databases dominate today#8217;s hiring process, successful resumes must feature cutting-edge industry jargon in the form of keywords. To read more about using keywords in resumes, see our article Tapping the Power of Keywords to Enhance Your Resume#8217;s Effectiveness. When your resume is seen by the human eye, it needs to catch attention and be simultaneously reader-friendly. Books On Writing College Essays? The print version of an effective resume must be sleek, distinctive, and essay about mothers for kids clean yet eye-catching. College Essays? Your resume should feature conservative, easy-to-read fonts, plenty of mass, white space, a layout/design that goes beyond ordinary yet is essays, not so far out as to turn employers off, and graphic elements that add interest, such as rule lines, boxes, shaded areas, and tables (for print version only, as these graphic elements will likely not hold up when entered into mass thesis, employers#8217; Applicant Tracking Systems.) Avoid instantly recognizable Microsoft Word resume templates.

Employers have seen a million of them, so they don#8217;t stand out. Resumes, especially for career changers, need to portray skills as applicable and transferable to the position the job-seeker is targeting. You need to show the books on writing employer that the skills you#8217;ve polished will contribute to the bottom line, even if you seek a job different from what you#8217;ve done in the past. For more about transferable skills, read our article, Strategic Portrayal of Transferable Job Skills is a Vital Job-Search Technique. Focus on accomplishments #8212; not duties and responsibilities #8212; that set you apart from other job candidates. In each job, what special things did you do to set yourself apart? How did you do the job better than anyone else or than anyone else could have done? What did you do to make it your own? What special things did you do to impress your boss so that you might be promoted? What were the problems or challenges that you or the organization faced?

What did you do to overcome the problems? What were the results of essay about mothers for kids, your efforts? How did the books on writing essays organization benefit from your performance? How did you leave your employers better off than before you worked for them? For more about how to issue, identify your accomplishments, see our article For Job-Hunting Success: Track and college Leverage Your Accomplishments and apa term style our Accomplishments Worksheet to help you brainstorm your accomplishments.

Spotlight your best selling points up front. #8220;The Resume Ingredients Rule,#8221; set forth by books on writing essays, Donald Asher, author of numerous resume books (see our QA with him), notes that information on a resume should be listed in order of importance to apa term style, the reader. Therefore, in listing your jobs, what#8217;s generally most important is your title/position. On Writing College? So list in this preferred order: Title/position, name of employer, city/state of employer, dates of employment. Also consider whether your education or your experience is your best selling point and which should therefore be listed first. Generally, brand-new graduates list education first, while job-seekers with a few years of experience list experience first. About Mothers For Kids? Don#8217;t bury relevant skills, such as technical and foreign-language skills, at essays the bottom of your resume. If computer skills are relevant to your field, list them in a Summary or Profile section atop your resume. That way, they#8217;ll catch the reader#8217;s eye in apa term paper the first third of the document. Similarly if language and international-business skills are important in the type of job you seek, list them prominently, not at the end of your resume. Books On Writing College Essays? Communicate your personal brand in your resume.

The branding expressed in your resume captures your career identity, authenticity, passion, essence, and image, as well as the mass statement promise of the value you bring to the employer. For a branded resume, integrate a distinctive appearance, a consistent branding message woven throughout the document supporting the branded message you intend to convey, as well as a branding statement that defines who you are, your promise of value, and books on writing why you should be sought out. Learn more with our Personal Branding Career Self-Marketing Tools for Job-Seekers and Career Activists. Make your resume a sales pitch that conveys your distinctiveness, passion, and uc application personal statement unique understanding of the business environment. It must answer the employer#8217;s question: Why you over any other candidate?

Clearly, uniqueness is closely related to books essays, both branding and essay underline title focus. If your resume conveys a sharp focus, the reader can instantly visualize you in the position you seek. If your resume is books on writing college, branded, it immediately communicates your promise of value. Literature Essay And Juliet? The uniqueness factor takes your resume to the next level by portraying you as not only in the position but the best person for the position, even the only logical choice for the position. When you imbue your resume with your uniqueness, you show the on writing employer that you completely comprehend the essay title challenges the organization faces and on writing college essays that you are overwhelmingly qualified to meet those challenges. If you have adequately sold your uniqueness, the reader reviewing your resume should say, #8220;This person gets it.#8221; Eliminate clutter from 2013, your resume. Among the elements can clutter up your resume and impede readability are unnecessary dates (such as dates of involvement in professional or civic organizations); parentheses (no need to on writing college, set off dates of employment with parentheses; just use commas), articles #8212; those little words, #8220;a,#8221; #8220;an,#8221; and #8220;the,#8221; most of which aren#8217;t needed; and the line #8220;References available upon request#8221; (unnecessary because it is a given that you will provide references upon request.) Structure your accomplishments as stories #8212; but tell them in reverse order. You#8217;ve probably heard of a story structure commonly suggested for job-interview responses: Situation Action Result, sometimes expressed as Challenge Action Result or Problem Action Result.

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Errors can kill your chances with many employers, so keep your resume error free. Keep your resume fresh and updated. Your resume should not be a static, stagnant document; change it as needed. If it#8217;s not working for english essay, you, have it critiqued by a professional to see what you can improve. Update it the minute you start a new job. Track your accomplishments so you can add those to books college essays, the document. Final Thoughts on Creating a Successful Job-Search Resume. Resume-writing isn#8217;t easy, but it#8217;s not as overwhelming as it may seem. Get a feel for an effective resume by looking at apa term style samples, and consult the copious resume resources here on Quint Careers. If you still feel like you can#8217;t do it, there#8217;s no shame in consulting a professional resume writer.

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essay on leverage Folks who do systems analysis have a great belief in “leverage points.” These are places within a complex system (a corporation, an economy, a living body, a city, an ecosystem) where a small shift in one thing can produce big changes in everything. This idea is not unique to systems analysis — it’s embedded in legend. The silver bullet, the trimtab, the miracle cure, the secret passage, the magic password, the single hero who turns the tide of history. The nearly effortless way to cut through or leap over huge obstacles.

We not only want to books college believe that there are leverage points, we want to know where they are and how to get our hands on them. Leverage points are points of power. The systems analysis community has a lot of lore about leverage points. Those of us who were trained by the great Jay Forrester at MIT have all absorbed one of his favorite stories. “People know intuitively where leverage points are,” he says. “Time after time I’ve done an analysis of a company, and I’ve figured out essay a leverage point — in inventory policy, maybe, or in the relationship between sales force and books essays productive force, or in personnel policy. Then I’ve gone to the company and discovered that there’s already a lot of attention to that point. Everyone is trying very hard to push it IN THE WRONG DIRECTION!” The classic example of that backward intuition was my own introduction to systems analysis, the paper, world model. College Essays. Asked by essay underline title the Club of books college essays Rome to show how major global problems — poverty and hunger, environmental destruction, resource depletion, urban deterioration, unemployment — are related and how they might be solved, Forrester made a computer model and came out with a clear leverage point 1 : Growth. Not only essay underline title population growth, but economic growth.

Growth has costs as well as benefits, and we typically don’t count the costs — among which are poverty and hunger, environmental destruction, etc. — the on writing college essays, whole list of problems we are trying to english literature essay and juliet solve with growth! What is needed is much slower growth, much different kinds of growth, and in on writing essays, some cases no growth or negative growth. The world’s leaders are correctly fixated on economic growth as the answer to virtually all problems, but they’re pushing with all their might in the wrong direction. Another of Forrester’s classics was his urban dynamics study, published in 1969, which demonstrated that subsidized low-income housing is a leverage point. 2 The less of it there is, the better off the apa term style, city is college — even the low-income folks in the city. This model came out at a time when national policy dictated massive low-income housing projects, and Forrester was derided. Now those projects are being torn down in city after city. Counterintuitive. That’s Forrester’s word to describe complex systems.

Leverage points are not intuitive. Essay Mothers For Kids. Or if they are, we intuitively use them backward, systematically worsening whatever problems we are trying to books on writing solve. The systems analysts I know have come up with no quick or easy formulas for finding leverage points. When we study a system, we usually learn where leverage points are. But a new system we’ve never encountered? Well, our counterintuitions aren’t that well developed. Give us a few months or years and we’ll figure it out. And we know from bitter experience that, because of counterintuitiveness, when we do discover the media statement, system’s leverage points, hardly anybody will believe us. Very frustrating, especially for those of us who yearn not just to understand complex systems, but to make the world work better.

So one day I was sitting in a meeting about how to on writing make the world work better — actually it was a meeting about how the new global trade regime, NAFTA and GATT and the World Trade Organization, is pollution global issue essay likely to essays make the world work worse. The more I listened, the more I began to simmer inside. “This is a HUGE NEW SYSTEM people are inventing!” I said to myself. Essay For Kids. “They haven’t the SLIGHTEST IDEA how this complex structure will behave,” myself said back to me. “It’s almost certainly an example of cranking the system in the wrong direction — it’s aimed at books on writing college growth, growth at any price!! And the control measures these nice, liberal folks are talking about to media statement combat it — small parameter adjustments, weak negative feedback loops — are PUNY. ” Suddenly, without quite knowing what was happening, I got up, marched to the flip chart, tossed over to a clean page, and wrote: (in increasing order of effectiveness) 9. Constants, parameters, numbers (subsidies, taxes, standards). 8. Regulating negative feedback loops. 7. Driving positive feedback loops. 6. Material flows and nodes of material intersection. 5. On Writing. Information flows. 4. The rules of the underline title, system (incentives, punishments, constraints). 3. The distribution of power over the rules of the system.

2. Books On Writing Essays. The goals of the system. 1. The mindset or paradigm out of which the system — its goals, power structure, rules, its culture — arises. Everyone in the meeting blinked in surprise, including me. “That’s brilliant!” someone breathed. “Huh?” said someone else. I realized that I had a lot of explaining to do. I also had a lot of thinking to uc application personal do. As with most of the stuff that come to me in books college, boil-over mode, this list was not exactly tightly reasoned. Paper Style. As I began to share it with others, especially systems analysts who had their own lists and activists who wanted to put the list to immediate use, questions and comments came back that caused me to rethink, add and delete items, change the order, add caveats. In a minute I’ll go through the books, list I ended up with, explain the apa term, jargon, give examples and books exceptions. The reason for this introduction is to english romeo and juliet place the college, list in a context of humility and to pollution leave room for on writing, evolution.

What bubbled up in me that day was distilled from decades of rigorous analysis of many different kinds of systems done by essay about for kids many smart people. But complex systems are, well, complex. Books. It’s dangerous to media thesis statement generalize about them. What you are about to read is a work in progress. It’s not a recipe for finding leverage points. Rather it’s an invitation to think more broadly about system change. Here, in on writing college, the light of uc application personal statement a cooler dawn, is a revised list: (in increasing order of effectiveness) 12. On Writing. Constants, parameters, numbers (such as subsidies, taxes, standards).

11. The sizes of buffers and other stabilizing stocks, relative to their flows. 10. Underline Title. The structure of material stocks and flows (such as transport networks, population age structures). 9. The lengths of delays, relative to the rate of system change.

8. The strength of negative feedback loops, relative to the impacts they are trying to correct against. 7. The gain around driving positive feedback loops. 6. The structure of information flows (who does and does not have access to information). 5. Books College. The rules of the system (such as incentives, punishments, constraints). 4. The power to about add, change, evolve, or self-organize system structure. 3. The goals of the on writing essays, system.

2. Personal Statement 2013. The mindset or paradigm out of books college essays which the system — its goals, structure, rules, delays, parameters — arises. 1. The power to essay romeo and juliet transcend paradigms. To explain parameters, stocks, delays, flows, feedback, and so forth, I need to start with a basic diagram. The “state of the on writing college, system” is whatever standing stock is thesis statement of importance — amount of water behind the on writing college, dam, amount of harvestable wood in the forest, number of people in the population, amount of title money in the bank, whatever. System states are usually physical stocks, but they could be nonmaterial ones as well — self-confidence, degree of trust in public officials, perceived safety of a neighborhood. There are usually inflows that increase the books on writing, stock and outflows that decrease it. 2013. Deposits increase the essays, money in the bank; withdrawals decrease it. Essay Underline. River inflow and rain raise the water behind the dam; evaporation and discharge through the spillway lower it. Births and immigrations increase the population, deaths and emigrations reduce it. Political corruption decreases trust in public officials; experience of a well-functioning government increases it.

Insofar as this part of the system consists of physical stocks and flows — and they are the books essays, bedrock of mass thesis any system — it obeys laws of conservation and on writing essays accumulation. You can understand its dynamics readily, if you can understand a bathtub with some water in it (the state of the system) and an inflowing faucet and outflowing drain. If the inflow rate is higher than the outflow rate, the stock gradually rises. If the outflow rate is mass media thesis higher than the inflow, the stock gradually goes down. The sluggish response of the water level to what could be sudden twists in the input and books on writing essays output valves is typical — it takes time for apa term, flows to accumulate, just as it takes time for water to college fill up or drain out uc application statement of the tub. The rest of the diagram is the information that causes the flows to on writing change, which then cause the stock to change. Pollution Issue. If you’re about to on writing college essays take a bath, you have a desired water level in mind. You plug the drain, turn on the faucet and watch until the water rises to your chosen level (until the statement, discrepancy between the books college, desired and the actual state of the system is paper style zero). Then you turn the water off.

If you start to get in on writing college essays, the bath and discover that you’ve underestimated your volume and are about to produce an uc application 2013 overflow, you can open the drain for awhile, until the water goes down to your desired level. Those are two negative feedback loops, or correcting loops, one controlling the inflow, one controlling the outflow, either or both of which you can use to bring the water level to your goal. Notice that the goal and the feedback connections are not visible in the system. If you were an on writing college extraterrestrial trying to figure out why the tub fills and empties, it would take awhile to statement 2013 figure out that there’s an invisible goal and a discrepancy-measuring process going on in the head of the creature manipulating the faucets. But if you watched long enough, you could figure that out. Very simple so far.

Now let’s take into account that you have two taps, a hot and college essays a cold, and that you’re also adjusting for another system state — temperature. Suppose the hot inflow is connected to a boiler way down in the basement, four floors below, so it doesn’t respond quickly. And you’re making faces at yourself in the mirror and not paying close attention to the water level. And, of course, the inflow pipe is connected to a reservoir somewhere, which is essay underline title connected to the whole planetary hydrological cycle. The system begins to get complex, and realistic, and books essays interesting. Mentally change the bathtub into your checking account. Write checks, make deposits, add a faucet that keeps dribbling in essay underline, a little interest and a special drain that sucks your balance even drier if it ever goes dry. Attach your account to a thousand others and let the bank create loans as a function of your combined and fluctuating deposits, link a thousand of essays those banks into underline title, a federal reserve system — and books on writing college essays you begin to see how simple stocks and pollution global issue essay flows, plumbed together, make up systems way too complex to figure out. That’s why leverage points are not intuitive. And that’s enough systems theory to proceed to the list.

12. Constants, parameters, numbers (subsidies, taxes, standards). “Parameters” in books essays, systems jargon means the apa term, numbers that determine how much of a discrepancy turns which faucet how fast. Maybe the faucet turns hard, so it takes awhile to books college essays get the water flowing or to turn it off. Maybe the drain is blocked and can allow only a small flow, no matter how open it is.

Maybe the faucet can deliver with the force of a fire hose. These considerations are a matter of numbers, some of which are physically locked in and unchangeable, but most of which are popular intervention points. Consider the national debt. It’s a negative bathtub, a money hole. The rate at which it sinks is called the annual deficit. Tax income makes it rise, government expenditures make it fall. Congress and underline the president spend most of their time arguing about the essays, many, many parameters that open and close tax faucets and spending drains. Since those faucets and drains are connected to us, the voters, these are politically charged parameters. But, despite all the fireworks, and no matter which party is in charge, the money hole has been sinking for years now, just at different rates.

To adjust the dirtiness of the air we breathe, the government sets parameters called ambient air quality standards. To assure some standing stock of forest (or some flow of money to logging companies) it sets allowed annual cuts. Corporations adjust parameters such as wage rates and product prices, with an eye on the level in their profit bathtub — the pollution essay, bottom line. The amount of land we set aside for conservation. The minimum wage. How much we spend on AIDS research or Stealth bombers. The service charge the bank extracts from your account. All these are parameters, adjustments to faucets. So, by the way, is firing people and getting new ones, including politicians. Putting different hands on the faucets may change the rate at which the faucets turn, but if they’re the same old faucets, plumbed into the same old system, turned according to the same old information and goals and rules, the system isn’t going to change much. Electing Bill Clinton was definitely different from electing George Bush, but not all that different, given that every president is plugged into the same political system. (Changing the way money flows in on writing college essays, that system would make much more of a difference — but I’m getting ahead of myself on this list.)

Parameters are dead last on my list of powerful interventions. Essay About Mothers. Diddling with the essays, details, arranging the deck chairs on the Titanic. Probably 90, no 95, no 99 percent of essay our attention goes to parameters, but there’s not a lot of leverage in them. Not that parameters aren’t important — they can be, especially in the short term and to the individual who’s standing directly in the flow. People care deeply about parameters and fight fierce battles over them. But they RARELY CHANGE BEHAVIOR. If the books on writing college, system is underline title chronically stagnant, parameter changes rarely kick-start it. College Essays. If it’s wildly variable, they don’t usually stabilize it.

If it’s growing out of control, they don’t brake it. Whatever cap we put on campaign contributions, it doesn’t clean up politics. Pollution Global Issue Essay. The Feds fiddling with the interest rate haven’t made business cycles go away. (We always forget that during upturns, and books on writing college essays are shocked, shocked by the downturns.) After decades of the essay romeo, strictest air pollution standards in the world, Los Angeles air is less dirty, but it isn’t clean. Spending more on police doesn’t make crime go away. Since I’m about to get into some examples where parameters ARE leverage points, let me stick in a big caveat here. Essays. Parameters become leverage points when they go into ranges that kick off one of the items higher on this list. Interest rates, for example, or birth rates, control the gains around positive feedback loops. System goals are parameters that can make big differences. Sometimes a system gets onto a chaotic edge, where the english romeo and juliet, tiniest change in a number can drive it from order to what appears to be wild disorder. These critical numbers are not nearly as common as people seem to think they are.

Most systems have evolved or are designed to stay far out of critical parameter ranges. Mostly, the books on writing, numbers are not worth the sweat put into them. Here’s a story a friend sent me over the Internet to makes that point: 3. When I became a landlord, I spent a lot of time and energy trying to figure out what would be a “fair” rent to charge. I tried to consider all the variables, including the relative incomes of my tenants, my own income and cash flow needs, which expenses were for upkeep and title which were capital expenses, the equity versus the interest portion of the mortgage payments, how much my labor on the house was worth, etc.

I got absolutely nowhere. Finally I went to college essays someone who specializes in giving money advice. She said: “You’re acting as though there is a fine line at which the english literature essay romeo, rent is fair, and at any point above that point the tenant is being screwed and at any point below that you are being screwed. In fact there is a large grey area in which both you and the tenant are getting a good, or at least a fair, deal. Stop worrying and books on writing essays get on with your life.” 11. The sizes of pollution global issue essay buffers and other stabilizing stocks, relative to their flows. Consider a huge bathtub with slow in on writing college, and outflows. Now think about a small one with very fast flows.

That’s the difference between a lake and a river. You hear about catastrophic river floods much more often than catastrophic lake floods, because stocks that are big, relative to their flows, are more stable than small ones. In chemistry and other fields, a big, stabilizing stock is known as a buffer. The stabilizing power of buffers is why you keep money in the bank rather than living from the flow of change through your pocket. It’s why stores hold inventory instead of calling for new stock just as customers carry the old stock out the door. It’s why we need to maintain more than the minimum breeding population of an endangered species. Soils in mass, the eastern U.S. are more sensitive to acid rain than soils in the west, because they haven’t got big buffers of calcium to on writing essays neutralize acid. You can often stabilize a system by increasing the thesis statement, capacity of a buffer.

4 But if a buffer is on writing essays too big, the system gets inflexible. It reacts too slowly. Paper. And big buffers of some sorts, such as water reservoirs or inventories, cost a lot to books on writing college build or maintain. Businesses invented just-in-time inventories, because occasional vulnerability to pollution global issue essay fluctuations or screw-ups is cheaper (for them, anyway) than certain, constant inventory costs — and because small-to-vanishing inventories allow more flexible response to shifting demand. There’s leverage, sometimes magical, in changing the size of books college essays buffers. But buffers are usually physical entities, not easy to change. The acid absorption capacity of eastern soils is not a leverage point for alleviating acid rain damage. The storage capacity of a dam is literally cast in global, concrete. So I haven’t put buffers very high on the list of college leverage points.

10. The structure of material stocks and flows and essay and juliet nodes of intersection (such as transport networks, population age structures, flow of nitrogen through soil). The plumbing structure, the stocks and flows and their physical arrangement, can have an enormous effect on books college how the system operates. When the Hungarian road system was laid out so all traffic from mass statement one side of the nation to the other has to pass through central Budapest, that determined a lot about air pollution and commuting delays that are not easily fixed by pollution control devices, traffic lights, or speed limits. The only way to on writing college essays fix a system that is laid out wrong is to rebuild it, if you can. Amory Lovins does wonders of energy conservation by straightening out essay underline title bent pipes and on writing college enlarging too-small ones. If we let him do energy retrofits on all the buildings of the nation,we could shut down at personal least half of our electric power plants. But often physical rebuilding is the slowest and most expensive kind of books on writing college change to make in a system.

Some stock-and-flow structures are just plain unchangeable. The baby-boom swell in the U.S. population first caused pressure on the elementary school system, then high schools, then colleges, then jobs and housing, and now we’re looking forward to supporting its retirement. Essay About For Kids. Not much we can do about it, because five-year-olds become six-year-olds, and sixty-four-year-olds become sixty-five-year-olds predictably and unstoppably. The same can be said for the lifetime of destructive CFC molecules in the ozone layer, for the rate at which contaminants get washed out of aquifers, for on writing essays, the fact that an inefficient car fleet takes 10-20 years to turn over. Physical structure is crucial in uc application personal statement, a system, but rarely a leverage point, because changing it is rarely quick or simple. The leverage point is in proper design in the first place. Books. After the pollution global essay, structure is built, the leverage is in understanding its limitations and bottlenecks, using it with maximum efficiency, and refraining from fluctuations or expansions that strain its capacity. 9. The lengths of delays, relative to the rate of system changes. Remember that bathtub on the fourth floor I mentioned, with the books college, water heater in the basement?

I actually experienced one of those once, in an old hotel in London. It wasn’t even a bathtub, it was a shower — no buffering capacity. The water temperature took at least a minute to respond to my faucet twists. Guess what my shower was like. Right, oscillations from hot to uc application statement 2013 cold and back to hot, punctuated with expletives. Delays in feedback loops are critical determinants of system behavior. They are common causes of oscillations. If you’re trying to adjust a system state to your goal, but you only receive delayed information about what the system state is, you will overshoot and books on writing college undershoot. Same if your information is thesis statement timely, but your response isn’t.

For example, it takes several years to build an electric power plant, and on writing then that plant lasts, say, thirty years. Those delays make it impossible to build exactly the right number of plants to pollution issue essay supply a rapidly changing demand. Books. Even with immense effort at forecasting, almost every electricity industry in the world experiences long oscillations between overcapacity and undercapacity. A system just can’t respond to short-term changes when it has long-term delays. That’s why a massive central-planning system, such as the Soviet Union or General Motors, necessarily functions poorly.

Because we know they’re important, we systems folks see delays wherever we look. The delay between the pollution, time when a pollutant is dumped on the land and when it trickles down to the groundwater. The delay between the on writing essays, birth of a child and 2013 the time when that child is ready to have a child. The delay between the first successful test of a new technology and the time when that technology is installed throughout the economy. The time it takes for a price to adjust to a supply-demand imbalance. A delay in a feedback process is critical RELATIVE TO RATES OF CHANGE (growth, fluctuation, decay) IN THE STOCKS THAT THE FEEDBACK LOOP IS TRYING TO CONTROL. Delays that are too short cause overreaction, “chasing your tail,” oscillations amplified by the jumpiness of the response. Delays that are too long cause damped, sustained, or exploding oscillations, depending on how much too long.

At the extreme they cause chaos. Overlong delays in a system with a threshold, a danger point, a range past which irreversible damage can occur, cause overshoot and collapse. I would list delay length as a high leverage point, except for the fact that delays are not often easily changeable. Things take as long as they take. You can’t do a lot about the construction time of a major piece of capital, or the maturation time of a child, or the growth rate of a forest. It’s usually easier to SLOW DOWN THE CHANGE RATE, so that inevitable feedback delays won’t cause so much trouble.

That’s why growth rates are higher up on books college essays the leverage-point list than delay times. And that’s why slowing economic growth is a greater leverage point in Forrester’s world model than faster technological development or freer market prices. Those are attempts to speed up the rate of for kids adjustment. But the world’s physical capital plant, its factories and boilers, the concrete manifestations of its working technologies, can only change so fast, even in the face of new prices or new ideas — and prices and ideas don’t change instantly either, not through a whole global culture. There’s more leverage in slowing the system down so technologies and prices can keep up with it, than there is in wishing the delays away. But if there is a delay in your system that can be changed, changing it can have big effects. Watch out! Be sure you change it in the right direction! (For example, the great push to reduce information and money transfer delays in books on writing college, financial markets is just asking for wild gyrations)

8. Pollution Global Essay. The strength of negative feedback loops, relative to the impacts they are trying to correct against. Now we’re beginning to move from the physical part of the system to on writing essays the information and literature and juliet control parts, where more leverage can be found. Negative feedback loops are ubiquitous in systems. Nature evolves them and humans invent them as controls to college keep important system states within safe bounds. Media Thesis. A thermostat loop is the classic example. Its purpose is to keep the system state called “room temperature” fairly constant at a desired level.

Any negative feedback loop needs a goal (the thermostat setting), a monitoring and on writing essays signaling device to detect excursions from the goal (the thermostat), and a response mechanism (the furnace and/or air conditioner, fans, heat pipes, fuel, etc.). A complex system usually has numerous negative feedback loops it can bring into play, so it can self-correct under different conditions and impacts. Some of those loops may be inactive much of the uc application statement 2013, time — like the emergency cooling system in a nuclear power plant, or your ability to sweat or shiver to maintain your body temperature — but their presence is critical to the long-term welfare of the system. One of the essays, big mistakes we make is to strip away these “emergency” response mechanisms because they aren’t often used and they appear to be costly. In the short term we see no effect from uc application statement doing this. In the long term, we drastically narrow the range of conditions over which the system can survive. One of the most heartbreaking ways we do this is in encroaching on the habitats of endangered species. Another is in encroaching on our own time for rest, recreation, socialization, and books college essays meditation. The “strength” of a negative loop — its ability to keep its appointed stock at or near its goal — depends on the combination of all its parameters and uc application statement 2013 links — the accuracy and rapidity of monitoring, the quickness and power of books on writing essays response, the directness and size of corrective flows.

Sometimes there are leverage points here. Take markets, for issue, example, the on writing essays, negative feedback systems that are all but worshipped by economists — and they can indeed be marvels of mass thesis self-correction, as prices vary to college moderate supply and demand and keep them in balance. The more the price — the central piece of information signaling both producers and consumers — is kept clear, unambiguous, timely, and truthful, the more smoothly markets will operate. Prices that reflect full costs will tell consumers how much they can actually afford and will reward efficient producers. Companies and governments are fatally attracted to the price leverage point, of course, all of them determinedly pushing it in the wrong direction with subsidies, fixes, externalities, taxes, and other forms of confusion. These folks are trying to weaken the feedback power of market signals by global issue twisting information in their favor. The REAL leverage here is to keep them from doing it. Hence the necessity of anti-trust laws, truth-in-advertising laws, attempts to internalize costs (such as pollution taxes), the removal of perverse subsidies, and other ways of leveling market playing fields. None of which get far these days, because of the weakening of another set of negative feedback loops — those of democracy. This great system was invented to put self-correcting feedback between the people and their government.

The people, informed about books on writing college essays, what their elected representatives do, respond by voting those representatives in paper, or out of office. Books On Writing College. The process depends upon the free, full, unbiased flow of information back and forth between electorate and leaders. Literature And Juliet. Billions of dollars are spent to limit and college bias and dominate that flow. Give the about, people who want to distort market price signals the power to pay off government leaders, get the college, channels of communication to essay for kids be self-interested corporate partners themselves, and none of the necessary negative feedbacks work well. Both market and democracy erode. The strength of a negative feedback loop is important RELATIVE TO THE IMPACT IT IS DESIGNED TO CORRECT. If the impact increases in strength, the books college essays, feedbacks have to english literature be strengthened too.

A thermostat system may work fine on a cold winter day — but open all the windows and its corrective power will fail. Democracy worked better before the advent of the brainwashing power of centralized mass communications. Traditional controls on on writing college fishing were sufficient until radar spotting and uc application statement drift nets and other technologies made it possible for a few actors to on writing college essays wipe out the fish. The power of big industry calls for the power of title big government to hold it in check; a global economy makes necessary a global government and global regulations. Here are some examples of strengthening negative feedback controls to improve a system’s self-correcting abilities: preventive medicine, exercise, and good nutrition to bolster the body’s ability to fight disease, integrated pest management to encourage natural predators of crop pests, the Freedom of Information Act to reduce government secrecy, monitoring systems to books college report on environmental damage, protection for whistleblowers, impact fees, pollution taxes, and performance bonds to recapture the externalized public costs of private benefits. 7. The gain around driving positive feedback loops. A negative feedback loop is self-correcting; a positive feedback loop is self-reinforcing. The more it works, the more it gains power to work some more. The more people catch the uc application personal statement, flu, the more they infect other people. The more babies are born, the books on writing college, more people grow up to have babies.

The more money you have in the bank, the more interest you earn, the pollution issue, more money you have in the bank. The more the essays, soil erodes, the less vegetation it can support, the apa term paper, fewer roots and leaves to soften rain and runoff, the more soil erodes. The more high-energy neutrons in books on writing college, the critical mass, the more they knock into mothers, nuclei and generate more. Positive feedback loops are sources of growth, explosion, erosion, and on writing collapse in systems. A system with an unchecked positive loop ultimately will destroy itself.

That’s why there are so few of them. Usually a negative loop will kick in sooner or later. The epidemic will run out of infectable people — or people will take increasingly strong steps to avoid being infected. The death rate will rise to equal the birth rate — or people will see the consequences of unchecked population growth and have fewer babies. The soil will erode away to bedrock, and after a million years the bedrock will crumble into new soil — or people will stop overgrazing, put up checkdams, plant trees, and pollution stop the erosion.

In all those examples, the books, first outcome is what will happen if the essay title, positive loop runs its course, the second is what will happen if there’s an intervention to books college essays reduce its self-multiplying power. Reducing the essay romeo and juliet, gain around a positive loop — slowing the growth — is usually a more powerful leverage point in books college, systems than strengthening negative loops, and essay underline much preferable to letting the positive loop run. Population and economic growth rates in the world model are leverage points, because slowing them gives the many negative loops, through technology and markets and other forms of adaptation, all of which have limits and delays, time to function. It’s the same as slowing the car when you’re driving too fast, rather than calling for more responsive brakes or technical advances in steering. Another example: there are many positive feedback loops in society that reward the on writing college, winners of a competition with the resources to win even bigger next time. Systems folks call them “success to the successful” loops. Rich people collect interest; poor people pay it. Rich people pay accountants and mothers for kids lean on politicians to reduce their taxes; poor people can’t. Books On Writing. Rich people give their kids inheritances and good educations; poor kids lose out.

Anti-poverty programs are weak negative loops that try to counter these strong positive ones. It would be much more effective to weaken the positive loops. Pollution Issue Essay. That’s what progressive income tax, inheritance tax, and universal high-quality public education programs are meant to do. (If rich people can buy government and weaken, rather than strengthen those of measures, the government, instead of on writing balancing “success to the successful” loops, becomes just another instrument to reinforce them!) The most interesting behavior that rapidly turning positive loops can trigger is underline chaos. This wild, unpredictable, unreplicable, and yet bounded behavior happens when a system starts changing much, much faster than its negative loops can react to books on writing college essays it. For example, if you keep raising the capital growth rate in the world model, eventually you get to a point where one tiny increase more will shift the underline, economy from exponential growth to oscillation. Another nudge upward gives the oscillation a double beat. And just the college, tiniest further nudge sends it into chaos. I don’t expect the world economy to turn chaotic any time soon (not for that reason, anyway).

That behavior occurs only in mass, unrealistic parameter ranges, equivalent to doubling the size of the economy within a year. Books On Writing College Essays. Real-world systems can turn chaotic, however, if something in them can grow or decline very fast. Fast-replicating bacteria or insect populations, very infectious epidemics, wild speculative bubbles in money systems, neutron fluxes in the guts of english literature essay nuclear power plants. These systems are hard to control, and control must involve slowing down the positive feedbacks. In more ordinary systems, look for leverage points around birth rates, interest rates, erosion rates, “success to the successful” loops, any place where the books essays, more you have of something, the more you have the possibility of having more. 6. The structure of information flows (who does and mass media does not have access to information).

There was this subdivision of identical houses, the story goes, except that for some reason the books college, electric meter in some of the houses was installed in the basement and in others it was installed in the front hall, where the residents could see it constantly, going round faster or slower as they used more or less electricity. With no other change, with identical prices, electricity consumption was 30 percent lower in the houses where the apa term style, meter was in the front hall. We systems-heads love that story because it’s an example of a high leverage point in books on writing essays, the information structure of the paper, system. It’s not a parameter adjustment, not a strengthening or weakening of an books college essays existing loop. Pollution Issue Essay. It’s a NEW LOOP, delivering feedback to a place where it wasn’t going before. A more recent example is the Toxic Release Inventory — the U.S. government’s requirement, instituted in 1986, that every factory releasing hazardous air pollutants report those emissions publicly every year. Suddenly every community could find out precisely what was coming out books on writing of the smokestacks in town. Literature. There was no law against those emissions, no fines, no determination of “safe” levels, just information. But by 1990 emissions dropped 40 percent. They’ve continued to go down since, not so much because of citizen outrage as because of corporate shame.

One chemical company that found itself on the Top Ten Polluters list reduced its emissions by on writing essays 90 percent, just to “get off that list.” Missing feedback is one of the most common causes of system malfunction. Essay Underline. Adding or restoring information can be a powerful intervention, usually much easier and cheaper than rebuilding physical infrastructure. The tragedy of the commons that is crashing the world’s commercial fisheries occurs because there is no feedback from the state of the fish population to books the decision to invest in underline, fishing vessels. (Contrary to economic opinion, the price of fish doesn’t provide that feedback. As the fish get more scarce and hence more expensive, it becomes all the essays, more profitable to go out and catch them. That’s a perverse feedback, a positive loop that leads to collapse.)

It’s important that the missing feedback be restored to the right place and in compelling form. To take another tragedy of the statement 2013, commons, it’s not enough to books on writing college essays inform all the users of an aquifer that the groundwater level is dropping. That could initiate a race to the bottom. Uc Application Personal 2013. It would be more effective to set a water price that rises steeply as the pumping rate begins to exceed the recharge rate. Compelling feedback. Suppose taxpayers got to specify on their return forms what government services their tax payments must be spent on. Books On Writing Essays. (Radical democracy!) Suppose any town or company that puts a water intake pipe in a river had to put it immediately DOWNSTREAM from its own outflow pipe. Suppose any public or private official who made the decision to invest in global essay, a nuclear power plant got the waste from that plant stored on his/her lawn. Suppose (this is an old one) the politicians who declare war were required to on writing spend that war in the front lines. There is a systematic tendency on paper style the part of human beings to avoid accountability for their own decisions. That’s why there are so many missing feedback loops — and why this kind of leverage point is so often popular with the masses, unpopular with the powers that be, and effective, if you can get the powers that be to permit it to happen (or go around them and make it happen anyway). 5. The rules of the system (incentives, punishments, constraints).

The rules of the books, system define its scope, its boundaries, its degrees of freedom. Thou shalt not kill. Everyone has the right of free speech. English And Juliet. Contracts are to be honored. The president serves four-year terms and cannot serve more than two of books on writing them. Nine people on a team, you have to touch every base, three strikes and paper style you’re out. On Writing College. If you get caught robbing a bank, you go to mothers jail. Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the USSR and opened information flows ( glasnost ) and changed the books, economic rules ( perestroika ), and look what happened. Constitutions are the strongest examples of social rules. Physical laws such as the second law of thermodynamics are absolute rules, whether we understand them or not or like them or not. Laws, punishments, incentives, and informal social agreements are progressively weaker rules.

To demonstrate the power of rules, I like to ask my students to mothers imagine different ones for a college. Suppose the books on writing essays, students graded the teachers, or each other. Suppose there were no degrees: you come to college when you want to learn something, and you leave when you’ve learned it. Suppose tenure were awarded to professors according to mothers their ability to solve real-world problems, rather than to publish academic papers. Suppose a class got graded as a group, instead of as individuals. As we try to imagine restructured rules like that and what our behavior would be under them, we come to understand the power of rules. They are high leverage points. Power over the rules is real power. That’s why lobbyists congregate when Congress writes laws, and why the Supreme Court, which interprets and delineates the Constitution — the rules for writing the rules — has even more power than Congress.

If you want to understand the college, deepest malfunctions of systems, pay attention to mass thesis the rules, and to who has power over them. That’s why my systems intuition was sending off alarm bells as the on writing, new world trade system was explained to me. It is a system with rules designed by corporations, run by corporations, for the benefit of corporations. Its rules exclude almost any feedback from any other sector of society. Most of its meetings are closed even to the press (no information flow, no feedback). It forces nations into positive loops “racing to the bottom,” competing with each other to weaken environmental and social safeguards in order to attract corporate investment. Essay For Kids. It’s a recipe for unleashing “success to books on writing essays the successful” loops, until they generate enormous accumulations of power and huge centralized planning systems that will destroy themselves, just as the Soviet Union destroyed itself, and for similar systemic reasons. 4. The power to add, change, evolve, or self-organize system structure.

The most stunning thing living systems and 2013 some social systems can do is to on writing change themselves utterly by creating whole new structures and behaviors. Pollution Global Issue. In biological systems that power is called evolution. In human economies it’s called technical advance or social revolution. On Writing College. In systems lingo it’s called self-organization. Self-organization means changing any aspect of a system lower on paper style this list — adding completely new physical structures, such as brains or wings or computers — adding new negative or positive loops, or new rules. Books Essays. The ability to self-organize is the strongest form of system resilience. A system that can evolve can survive almost any change, by changing itself. The human immune system has the power to develop new responses to (some kinds of ) insults it has never before encountered. The human brain can take in new information and pop out completely new thoughts. The power of pollution issue self-organization seems so wondrous that we tend to regard it as mysterious, miraculous, manna from heaven. Economists often model technology as literal manna — coming from books college essays nowhere, costing nothing, increasing the productivity of an economy by some steady percent each year.

For centuries people have regarded the spectacular variety of nature with the same awe. Only a divine creator could bring forth such a creation. Further investigation of self-organizing systems reveals that the essay about mothers for kids, divine creator, if there is one, does not have to books essays produce evolutionary miracles. He, she, or it just has to essay mothers for kids write marvelously clever RULES FOR SELF-ORGANIZATION. These rules basically govern how, where, and what the system can add onto or subtract from itself under what conditions. As hundreds of books college self-organizing computer models have demonstrated, complex and delightful patterns can evolve from quite simple evolutionary algorithms. (That need not mean that real-world algorithms are simple, only that they can be.) The genetic code within the DNA that is the about mothers for kids, basis of all biological evolution contains just four different letters, combined into words of three letters each. That pattern, and the rules for replicating and rearranging it, has been constant for something like three billion years, during which it has spewed out an unimaginable variety of failed and essays successful self-evolved creatures. Self-organization is basically a matter of an evolutionary raw material — a highly variable stock of information from which to mass media statement select possible patterns — and a means for experimentation, for selecting and testing new patterns. For biological evolution the raw material is DNA, one source of variety is spontaneous mutation, and the testing mechanism is books on writing college something like punctuated Darwinian selection. For technology the raw material is the body of understanding science has accumulated and stored in libraries and in the brains of underline title its practitioners. The source of variety is human creativity (whatever THAT is) and the selection mechanism can be whatever the books on writing college, market will reward, or whatever governments and foundations will fund, or whatever meets human needs.

When you understand the power of system self-organization, you begin to title understand why biologists worship biodiversity even more than economists worship technology. The wildly varied stock of DNA, evolved and accumulated over billions of years, is the books college essays, source of evolutionary potential, just as science libraries and labs and uc application 2013 universities where scientists are trained are the books on writing college, source of technological potential. Allowing species to go extinct is a systems crime, just as randomly eliminating all copies of particular science journals, or particular kinds of scientists, would be. The same could be said of human cultures, of course, which are the store of behavioral repertoires, accumulated over not billions, but hundreds of thousands of essay mothers for kids years. They are a stock out of which social evolution can arise. Unfortunately, people appreciate the precious evolutionary potential of cultures even less than they understand the preciousness of every genetic variation in the world’s ground squirrels. I guess that’s because one aspect of almost every culture is the belief in the utter superiority of that culture. Insistence on a single culture shuts down learning. Books On Writing. Cuts back resilience. Any system, biological, economic, or social, that gets so encrusted that it cannot self-evolve, a system that systematically scorns experimentation and wipes out the raw material of innovation, is doomed over the long term on this highly variable planet. The intervention point here is obvious, but unpopular.

Encouraging variability and experimentation and diversity means “losing control.” Let a thousand flowers bloom and ANYTHING could happen! Who wants that? Let’s play it safe and push this leverage point in the wrong direction by wiping out biological, cultural, social, and market diversity! Right there, the diversity-destroying consequence of the push for english essay romeo and juliet, control, that demonstrates why the goal of books on writing college a system is a leverage point superior to personal the self-organizing ability of a system. Books. If the essay, goal is to bring more and more of the world under the control of college essays one particular central planning system (the empire of Genghis Khan, the world of Islam, the People’s Republic of essay for kids China, Wal-Mart, Disney, whatever), then everything further down the list, physical stocks and flows, feedback loops, information flows, even self-organizing behavior, will be twisted to conform to that goal.

That’s why I can’t get into arguments about whether genetic engineering is a “good” or a “bad” thing. Like all technologies, it depends upon who is wielding it, with what goal. The only college essays thing one can say is that if corporations wield it for the purpose of generating marketable products, that is a very different goal, a different selection mechanism, a different direction for evolution than anything the planet has seen so far. As my little single-loop examples have shown, most negative feedback loops within systems have their own goals — to keep the bathwater at global the right level, to keep the room temperature comfortable, to keep inventories stocked at sufficient levels, to keep enough water behind the dam. Those goals are important leverage points for pieces of systems, and most people realize that. If you want the room warmer, you know the thermostat setting is the place to intervene. But there are larger, less obvious, higher-leverage goals, those of the college, entire system. Even people within systems don’t often recognize what whole-system goal they are serving. To make profits, most corporations would say, but that’s just a rule, a necessary condition to stay in the game.

What is the point of the game? To grow, to increase market share, to literature essay romeo and juliet bring the world (customers, suppliers, regulators) more and more under the control of the corporation, so that its operations becomes ever more shielded from uncertainty. John Kenneth Galbraith recognized that corporate goal — to engulf everything — long ago. 5 It’s the goal of books essays a cancer too. Actually it’s the essay about for kids, goal of every living population — and only a bad one when it isn’t balanced by higher-level negative feedback loops that never let an upstart power-loop-driven entity control the world.

The goal of books on writing keeping the market competitive has to title trump the goal of books on writing college each corporation to eliminate its competitors (and brainwash its customers and swallow its suppliers), just as in ecosystems, the goal of keeping populations in balance and evolving has to style trump the goal of each population to reproduce without limit. I said awhile back that changing the books on writing college, players in the system is a low-level intervention, as long as the players fit into the same old system. The exception to that rule is at the top, where a single player can have the power to change the issue, system’s goal. I have watched in wonder as — only books essays very occasionally — a new leader in an organization, from Dartmouth College to Nazi Germany, comes in, enunciates a new goal, and swings hundreds or thousands or millions of perfectly intelligent, rational people off in a new direction. That’s what Ronald Reagan did, and we watched it happen. Not long before he came to office, a president could say “Ask not what government can do for you, ask what you can do for the government,” and no one even laughed. Reagan said over and over, the goal is not to get the people to help the government and paper not to get government to help the people, but to get government off our backs. One can argue, and I would, that larger system changes and the rise of corporate power over government let him get away with that. But the thoroughness with which the public discourse in the U.S. and even the world has been changed since Reagan is testimony to the high leverage of articulating, meaning, repeating, standing up for, insisting upon new system goals. 2. Books On Writing Essays. The mindset or paradigm out of paper style which the system — its goals, structure, rules, delays, parameters — arises.

Another of Jay Forrester’s famous systems sayings goes: it doesn’t matter how the tax law of a country is written. There is a shared idea in the minds of the society about what a “fair” distribution of the books essays, tax load is. Whatever the rules say, by fair means or foul, by uc application complications, cheating, exemptions or deductions, by constant sniping at the rules, actual tax payments will push right up against the accepted idea of “fairness.” The shared idea in the minds of society, the great big unstated assumptions — unstated because unnecessary to state; everyone already knows them — constitute that society’s paradigm, or deepest set of books on writing essays beliefs about how the world works. There is a difference between nouns and verbs. Money measures something real and has real meaning (therefore people who are paid less are literally worth less). Growth is good. Nature is a stock of resources to mass be converted to on writing essays human purposes. Evolution stopped with the emergence of Homo sapiens . About Mothers. One can “own” land.

Those are just a few of the paradigmatic assumptions of on writing our current culture, all of which have utterly dumfounded other cultures, who thought them not the least bit obvious. Paradigms are the sources of personal 2013 systems. From them, from shared social agreements about the nature of books on writing college essays reality, come system goals and information flows, feedbacks, stocks, flows and uc application everything else about systems. No one has ever said that better than Ralph Waldo Emerson: Every nation and every man instantly surround themselves with a material apparatus which exactly corresponds to books … their state of thought. Apa Term. Observe how every truth and every error, each a thought of some man’s mind, clothes itself with societies, houses, cities, language, ceremonies, newspapers. Observe the ideas of the present day … see how timber, brick, lime, and stone have flown into convenient shape, obedient to books essays the master idea reigning in the minds of many persons….

It follows, of course, that the least enlargement of ideas … would cause the most striking changes of external things. 6. The ancient Egyptians built pyramids because they believed in an afterlife. We build skyscrapers, because we believe that space in downtown cities is enormously valuable. (Except for blighted spaces, often near the skyscrapers, which we believe are worthless.) Whether it was Copernicus and Kepler showing that the mass media thesis statement, earth is books college essays not the center of the universe, or Einstein hypothesizing that matter and energy are interchangeable, or Adam Smith postulating that the selfish actions of individual players in uc application personal, markets wonderfully accumulate to the common good, people who have managed to intervene in systems at the level of paradigm have hit a leverage point that totally transforms systems. You could say paradigms are harder to books on writing college change than anything else about a system, and global therefore this item should be lowest on the list, not second-to-highest. But there’s nothing physical or expensive or even slow in the process of paradigm change. In a single individual it can happen in a millisecond. All it takes is a click in the mind, a falling of scales from eyes, a new way of books essays seeing. Mass. Whole societies are another matter — they resist challenges to college their paradigm harder than they resist anything else.

So how do you change paradigms? Thomas Kuhn, who wrote the seminal book about the great paradigm shifts of science, 7 has a lot to essay about for kids say about that. In a nutshell, you keep pointing at the anomalies and books failures in the old paradigm, you keep coming yourself, and loudly and with assurance from the issue essay, new one, you insert people with the new paradigm in places of public visibility and power. You don’t waste time with reactionaries; rather you work with active change agents and books on writing with the vast middle ground of people who are open-minded. Systems folks would say you change paradigms by modeling a system, which takes you outside the system and pollution global issue essay forces you to books on writing college see it whole. We say that because our own paradigms have been changed that way. 1. The power to transcend paradigms. There is yet one leverage point that is underline title even higher than changing a paradigm. That is to keep oneself unattached in the arena of paradigms, to stay flexible, to books college realize that NO paradigm is “true,” that every one, including the one that sweetly shapes your own worldview, is a tremendously limited understanding of an english literature immense and amazing universe that is far beyond human comprehension.

It is to college essays “get” at a gut level the paradigm that there are paradigms, and to see that that itself is a paradigm, and to regard that whole realization as devastatingly funny. It is to let go into Not Knowing, into what the Buddhists call enlightenment. People who cling to paradigms (which means just about all of us) take one look at the spacious possibility that everything they think is guaranteed to be nonsense and pedal rapidly in the opposite direction. Surely there is no power, no control, no understanding, not even a reason for literature essay, being, much less acting, in the notion or experience that there is books college no certainty in any worldview. But, in fact, everyone who has managed to entertain that idea, for a moment or for a lifetime, has found it to be the basis for radical empowerment. Uc Application. If no paradigm is right, you can choose whatever one will help to achieve your purpose. If you have no idea where to get a purpose, you can listen to the universe (or put in the name of your favorite deity here) and on writing college do his, her, its will, which is probably a lot better informed than your will. It is in this space of mastery over paradigms that people throw off addictions, live in constant joy, bring down empires, get locked up or burned at the stake or crucified or shot, and have impacts that last for millennia. Back from the sublime to the ridiculous, from english literature essay enlightenment to caveats.

There is so much that has to be said to qualify this list. On Writing. It is tentative and its order is about slithery. There are exceptions to every item that can move it up or down the order of leverage. Having had the list percolating in my subconscious for years has not transformed me into a Superwoman. The higher the leverage point, the on writing college, more the apa term paper style, system will resist changing it — that’s why societies have to rub out truly enlightened beings. Magical leverage points are not easily accessible, even if we know where they are and which direction to push on them. There are no cheap tickets to mastery.

You have to work hard at it, whether that means rigorously analyzing a system or rigorously casting off your own paradigms and throwing yourself into the humility of Not Knowing. In the end, it seems that mastery has less to do with pushing leverage points than it does with strategically, profoundly, madly letting go. J.W. Forrester, World Dynamics , Portland OR, Productivity Press, 1971 J.W. Forrester, Urban Dynamics , Portland OR, Productivity Press, 1969. Thanks to David Holmstrom of Santiago, Chile.

For an example, see Dennis Meadows’s model of commodity price fluctuations: D.L. Meadows, Dynamics of Commodity Production Cycles , Portland OR, 1970. John Kenneth Galbraith, The New Industrial State , 1967. Ralph Waldo Emerson, “War,” (lecture delivered in Boston, March, 1838). Reprinted in Emerson’s Complete Works , vol.

XI, Boston, Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1887, p. 177. Books On Writing College. Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions , Chicago, University of english Chicago Press, 1962. About The Donella Meadows Project. The mission of the Donella Meadows Project is to college preserve Donella (Dana) H. Meadows’s legacy as an inspiring leader, scholar, writer, and teacher; to manage the intellectual property rights related to mass media statement Dana’s published work; to provide and maintain a comprehensive and easily accessible archive of her work online, including articles, columns, and letters; to develop new resources and programs that apply her ideas to books college essays current issues and make them available to an ever-larger network of students, practitioners, and english leaders in social change. On Writing Essays. Read More. DMI will be producing an essay romeo and juliet E-newsletter with news from the books on writing college, organization, updates on the work of our fellows, and literature more. Sign up here if you'd like to college essays hear about what we're working on. About The Donella Meadows Project. The Donella Meadows Project, a project of the Academy for Systems Change, 2 Beaver Meadow Road, Norwich, Vermont 05055 | 802-649-7250 | Contact Us. The Academy for Systems Change site is a Catalyst Webworks production.

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