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archetypes essays The 12 Common Archetypes. The term archetype has its origins in ancient Greek. The root words are archein , which means original or old; and darden essay, typos , which means pattern, model or type. The combined meaning is an original pattern of which all other similar persons, objects, or concepts are derived, copied, modeled, or emulated. Motto: Free to be you and me. Core desire: to get to paradise.
Goal: to be happy. Free Essay Bill! Greatest fear: to be punished for essay review, doing something bad or wrong. Strategy: to do things right. On The Bill Of Rights! Weakness: boring for all their naive innocence. Talent: faith and optimism. The Innocent is also known as: Utopian, traditionalist, naive, mystic, saint, romantic, dreamer. 2. The Orphan/Regular Guy or Gal.
Motto: All men and women are created equal. Core Desire: connecting with others. Review! Greatest fear: to be left out sentence for an essay, or to stand out from the crowd. Strategy: develop ordinary solid virtues, be down to earth, the common touch. Weakness: losing one's own self in an effort to blend in or for the sake of review superficial relationships. Talent: realism, empathy, lack of on helen keller pretense. The Regular Person is also known as: The good old boy, everyman, the person next door, the realist, the working stiff, the solid citizen, the darden good neighbor, the silent majority. Motto: Where there's a will, there's a way. Core desire: to prove one's worth through courageous acts.
Goal: expert mastery in a way that improves the world. Greatest fear: weakness, vulnerability, being a chicken Strategy: to be as strong and competent as possible. Weakness: arrogance, always needing another battle to fight. Talent: competence and courage. The Hero is also known as: The warrior, crusader, rescuer, superhero, the soldier, dragon slayer, the winner and the team player.
4. The Caregiver. Motto: Love your neighbour as yourself. Core desire: to protect and care for others. Is Not One Of Essay! Goal: to help others. Greatest fear: selfishness and essay review, ingratitude. Strategy: doing things for others. Need Financially! Weakness: martyrdom and being exploited. Talent: compassion, generosity. The Caregiver is also known as: The saint, altruist, parent, helper, supporter.
Motto: Don't fence me in. Core desire: the darden review freedom to find out who you are through exploring the world. Which Is Not The Three Parts Persuasive! Goal: to experience a better, more authentic, more fulfilling life. Biggest fear: getting trapped, conformity, and inner emptiness. Strategy: journey, seeking out and experiencing new things, escape from boredom. Weakness: aimless wandering, becoming a misfit. Talent: autonomy, ambition, being true to one's soul. The explorer is also known as: The seeker, iconoclast, wanderer, individualist, pilgrim.
Motto: Rules are made to darden review, be broken. Core desire: revenge or revolution. Goal: to overturn what isn't working. Greatest fear: to be powerless or ineffectual. Strategy: disrupt, destroy, or shock. Weakness: crossing over to constitution and articles of confederation, the dark side, crime.
Talent: outrageousness, radical freedom. The Outlaw is also known as: The rebel, revolutionary, wild man, the misfit, or iconoclast. Motto: You're the darden essay only one. Core desire: intimacy and experience. Goal: being in essay on the bill of rights, a relationship with the people, work and essay, surroundings they love. Greatest fear: being alone, a wallflower, unwanted, unloved. Strategy: to which of the following parts persuasive, become more and more physically and emotionally attractive. Weakness: outward-directed desire to please others at risk of losing own identity. Talent: passion, gratitude, appreciation, and commitment. The Lover is also known as: The partner, friend, intimate, enthusiast, sensualist, spouse, team-builder.
Motto: If you can imagine it, it can be done. Core desire: to create things of enduring value. Goal: to realize a vision. Greatest fear: mediocre vision or execution. Strategy: develop artistic control and skill.
Task: to create culture, express own vision. Weakness: perfectionism, bad solutions. Darden Review! Talent: creativity and bill, imagination. The Creator is essay review, also known as: The artist, inventor, innovator, musician, writer or dreamer. Motto: You only live once.
Core desire: to live in the moment with full enjoyment. Goal: to have a great time and lighten up the world. Greatest fear: being bored or boring others. Strategy: play, make jokes, be funny. Weakness: frivolity, wasting time. The Jester is also known as: The fool, trickster, joker, practical joker or comedian. Motto: The truth will set you free. Core desire: to free essay bill of rights, find the truth. Goal: to review, use intelligence and do i need financially, analysis to understand the world. Biggest fear: being duped, misled—or ignorance. Strategy: seeking out essay, information and constitution and articles of confederation essay, knowledge; self-reflection and understanding thought processes.
Weakness: can study details forever and never act. Talent: wisdom, intelligence. The Sage is also known as: The expert, scholar, detective, advisor, thinker, philosopher, academic, researcher, thinker, planner, professional, mentor, teacher, contemplative. Essay! 11. The Magician.
Motto: I make things happen. Core desire: understanding the fundamental laws of the universe. Keller! Goal: to make dreams come true. Greatest fear: unintended negative consequences. Essay! Strategy: develop a vision and live by it.
Weakness: becoming manipulative. Talent: finding win-win solutions. The Magician is free essay bill, also known as:The visionary, catalyst, inventor, charismatic leader, shaman, healer, medicine man. Motto: Power isn't everything, it's the only thing. Core desire: control. Goal: create a prosperous, successful family or community. Strategy: exercise power. Greatest fear: chaos, being overthrown.
Weakness: being authoritarian, unable to review, delegate. Talent: responsibility, leadership. A Brief Essay Financially Ne! The Ruler is also known as: The boss, leader, aristocrat, king, queen, politician, role model, manager or administrator. The Four Cardinal Orientations. The Four Cardinal Orientations define four groups, with each group containing three types (as the wheel of archetypes shown above illustrates).
Each group is motivated by its respective orienting focus: ego-fulfillment, freedom, socialness and order. This is a variation on the three groups of Types previously mentioned; however, whereas all the types within the Ego, Soul Self sets all share the same driving source, the types comprising the four orienting groups have different source drives but the same motivating orientation. Darden Review! For example, the Caregiver is driven by the need to fulfill ego agendas through meeting the needs of others, which is a social orientation; whereas, the Hero, which is also driven by the need to of rights, fulfill ego agendas, does so through courageous action that proves self-worth. Understanding the groupings will aid in understanding the motivational and self-perceptual dynamics of each type.
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Guide for the Preparation of Investment Analysis Reports. This Guide was originally developed at the request of the Investment Management Board members (now the Real Property Investment Board or RPIB ). The Guide was subsequently revised in 2005 to incorporate recent developments such as the fit-up and space allocation standards, improved risk management and the analysis of darden essay review, sustainable development issues. The Guide was revised again in 2009 in order to incorporate enhancements in support of RPB 's new corporate Real Estate Model. More specifically, revisions were made to encourage the consideration of a wider range of investment options, such as, public-private partnerships, to improve the qualitative and quantitative consideration of essay on the, risk and to improve the darden essay review, overall quality of IAR submissions. This Guide is one of several measures that RPIB members are proposing in order to ensure consistent high quality and essay need ne, timeliness of Investment Analysis Reports (IAR s). Darden Essay Review! Stated more formally, the purpose of essay do i, this Guide is to strengthen the role of IAR s as information, approval, accountability and performance measurement documents, for meeting client requirements and darden essay, ensuring the integrity of real property assets. A Brief Essay On Why Need! This Guide represents RPIB 's position on how IAR s should be written, both in terms of style and organization, and what information they should contain, in order for these executives to take an informed decision.
The Guide should be used in conjunction with other supporting documents (See Section 1.10 for review, Sources, Tools and References). This document provides a guide for all persons who have responsibility whether it be in the preparation of, contribution to, or in reviewing any type of Investment Analysis Report. This Guide describes the IAR preparation process and the positioning of the IAR within the context of the essays on helen, overall National Project Management System (NPMS ). This Guide proposes a nationally consistent style for writing IAR s, which is described in detail, section by section. Review! In addition it describes the purpose and suggested content for each section of an IAR . This Guide focuses on the preparation of Investment Analysis Reports for the national Real Property Investment Board and Regional Investment Management Boards (RIMB). It is intended for the use in both asset-based and space-based IAR s for projects with a total estimated cost of more than $1.0 million. Critical Essay Of The Hour! The depth and length of an essay review, IAR should be adjusted to fit the circumstances of each project.
A separate template is available for short-form IAR s for project costing less than $1.0 million. For writers and contributors to IAR s, this Guide offers the a brief essay do i need financially, following benefits: facilitates the involvement of review, a wider group of persons in preparing and contributing to the preparation of IAR s eases the process of on why financially, initiating an IAR for a project increases the essay review, efficiency in free on the of rights, which IAR s are prepared, thereby, also decreasing the elapsed time in darden, their preparation increases the probability of “doing it right the first time”fewer drafts and redrafts provides a handy reference for reaching the desired standard of quality in the IAR s of the Real Property Program offers users a handy guide to relevant sources of one of the three basic of a persuasive essay, information. 1.2 Principles for the Preparation of IAR s. This Guide for the Preparation of Investment Analysis Reports (IAR s), is supported by essay review the RPIB and RIMB and is designed to facilitate the on the, process of preparing IAR s. The IAR s that are responsive to the principles below provide an assurance that the required consultations have been made and essay, relevant interests have been taken into account; they also achieve a high degree of quality and better support the decisions that have to be made. Consistent in terms of organization (without being rigid or inflexible); this includes the essay on why do i, use of headings and sub-headings, and the placement of appropriate information in appendices; see Section 3.5, Proposed Outline of an IAR ; Consistent in terms of style and darden, tone; well-written IAR s are factual and objective; see Section 3.1 Key Guidelines and Criteria for a Well-Written IAR ; Concise ; the IAR presents only relevant information and data, and does so in a manner that is brief and to the point; more extensive information is presented in the Appendices, if required; Compliant ; the IAR indicates if the proposed project complies with the national and community-based investment strategies, the relevant Asset Management Plan(s), the ARLU and budget allocations; Reliable ; the of the of an hour, IAR clearly documents the requirements, the time constraints, the implementation strategy, the issues and risks associated with a given course of action; Valid ; the options presented to the RPIB and essay review, RIMB for consideration include all viable options, that are well described and continue to essays on helen be feasible; Precise ; the scope, components, costs, impacts, implementation strategy, and issues surrounding the recommended option are precisely described; Timely ; the RPIB and RIMB receives the IAR for review at darden a point when due deliberation is possible and severe time constraints are not dictating the agenda. In addition to the above attributes, it is important that the approach to investment analysis reflects the principle, which states that the overriding objective is always to which following is not one of the three parts of a persuasive essay maximize the long-term benefits of the federal government as a whole. In this regard, the interests of the federal government must be paramount and the IAR should be written to reflect a total government perspective. 1.3 Purposes of Investment Analysis Reports. By definition, IAR s are future oriented and help to create RPB 's “contract with the future”. Review! They create and support the asset base from which service will be provided to clients in the future.
IAR s therefore play a pivotal role in the system and serve several purposes simultaneously. They encompass information, approval, accountability and free bill of rights, performance measurement documents all in one report. IAR s are information documents . They provide consistent, concise, reliable, precise and darden essay, timely information on a specific real property context, and on a range of options facing the Real Property Branch for meeting client and asset integrity requirements. Write A Hook Sentence For An Essay! As information documents, they are read by darden essay a wide range of parties having management, planning and implementation roles for Real Property Branch. IAR s are approval documents . They enable the RPIB and RIMB to make recommendations and which of the one of parts of a essay, senior management to darden essay make decisions on free essay bill of rights, future courses of action. IAR s facilitate and support decision-making and are used to darden essay review identify a preferred course of action to of the is not one of the three parts of a essay provide a relevant rationale and to essay review fully inform the RPIB , the RIMB and constitution and articles of confederation, RPB senior management of all relevant implications pertaining to the selected course of action. IAR s are accountability documents . They crystallize and confirm organizational accountabilities. Through the signature of the darden essay review, originating authorities, IAR s indicate the agreement of critical of the story of an, team members, particularly those that have to implement the project and confirm the accountabilities of specific persons for the quality of the information provided in the IAR . Simultaneously, IAR s are the vehicle whereby accountability for projects and initiatives are assumed at all levels within the Real Property Program up to the level of the Assistant Deputy Minister of essay, Real Property Branch. Finally, in identifying the key members of the implementation team, IAR s also confer suitable accountabilities for this implementation. IAR s are performance measurement documents . Constitution! They are part of the critical audit trail that helps to measure whether the Real Property Branch and its specific regions and units, are achieving the desired results. More specifically, IAR s provide a critical reference point in darden review, assessing project and program performance after project completion, for example, in terms of timing, cost and measuring actual results against expected project financial and qualitative benefits (e.g. sustainability).
The mandate of PSPC 's Real Property Branch is to provide office accommodation for sentence for an essay, federal government departments. Consequently, PSPC is responsible for seeking project approval associated with the provision of darden essay review, office accommodation. The following approval authorities apply to asset-based and space-based office accommodation projects: In the NCA , projects costing less than $1.0 million are typically approved by the Real Property Team Director, based on a short-form IAR . In the essays on helen, regions, smaller projects are approved by the Regional Director with the essay review, approval limits subject to essays on helen keller regional delegations of authority. An IAR , is darden essay review typically required for all projects costing more than $25,000, although, there is some variation found within different regions. Projects costing up to $10.0 million are approved at the regional level by the Regional Director General and is based on an IAR as well as the recommendation of the Regional Investment Management Board (RIMB).
Projects costing up to $30.0 million are approved at the Headquarters level by of the one of the three basic essay the ADM of the Real Property Branch, and based on the IAR and the recommendations of the RIMB , RDG and the Real Property Investment Board (RPIB). Currently, projects costing over $30.0 million must be approved by Treasury Board, based on darden essay review, a Treasury Board submission and the recommendation of the Minister. Before proceeding to Treasury Board, the project must be recommended by the ADM . The ADM 's recommendation is how to write sentence for an based on an IAR and the recommendations of the RIMB , RDG and review, the Real Property Investment Board (RPIB). It should be noted that, under Treasury Board's new Policy on the Management of Projects , project approval limits would soon be based on the risk and complexity of critical essay, individual projects and the capacity of the department or agency to essay review manage projects, rather than on a dollar value threshold. More complete information on delegations of authority can be found on the on the delegation of authorities site.
There are three types of project approval that can be sought through an IAR : preliminary project approval (PPA), effective project approval (EPA) and lease project approval (LPA). A Treasury Board submission is constitution and articles required if the project cost is greater than $30.0 million (for accommodation projects). Preliminary Project Approval (PPA): PPA is sought as part of the essay, project identification phase, and is required to enable RPB to essay on the bill undertake detailed technical investigations and to disburse the funds necessary to darden essay get more precise cost estimates and to support the full definition of the project. An IAR seeking PPA must clearly demonstrate that a program requirement exists and that this requirement can be addressed through the implementation of the free essay on the bill, proposed project. The IAR analyses a range of options for meeting the identified requirement using indicative cost estimates for each of the options analyzed and recommend a course of action. An IAR seeking PPA should also include a request for darden review, spending authority for the amount required to fund the work (i.e. Argumentative Essay! engineering investigations and architectural planning) carried out in the project planning phase, with the amount requested being supported by substantive cost estimates. Effective Project Approval (EPA): EPA is darden essay sought once the which of the is not one of the three, project definition has been completed, substantive cost estimates have been developed, and the project is essay review ready to be fully implemented. The granting of EPA provides the authority to proceed with the implementation of the project and how to write a hook, establishes the critical objectives for the project in terms of cost, scope and timing. These objectives serve as the baseline for monitoring the implementation of the essay, project.
An IAR seeking EPA must use substantive cost estimates for the project being recommended for approval. It should also re-examine all of the available options previously identified in order to ensure that the recommended option is still the most beneficial approach for meeting the requirement. Lease Project Approval (LPA): Any project involving a lease solution must receive LPA prior to soliciting bids. A LPA is on why do i financially ne a one-stage approval authority for lease projects, with exception to those identified below. For the purpose of darden essay, determining the how to sentence for an essay, appropriate approval levels for lease projects, project cost is defined as the essay review, present value of and articles of confederation, net rental costs over the term of the lease (not including options), plus all one-time costs (such as fit-up) associated with bringing the property into inventory. An IAR seeking LPA must use substantive cost estimates that are based on market data provided in a Market Analysis Report (MAR) or other reliable sources of market rental rates. Approvals for darden, Lease Projects Involving a New Building: In the write a hook for an argumentative essay, case of a lease project that will result in the creation of a new building via a P3 delivery (example: build to lease and lease purchase), a PPA is darden essay required for spending authority to run the procurement process, followed by an EPA once the on why need, procurement/solicitation of darden review, offers process is complete. The cost for the PPA is based on Lease Project Approval estimates and the cost for EPA is based on lease contract authority (LCA).
The LCA amount is the how to for an argumentative essay, total amount that will be paid to the landlord over the term of the lease (not discounted to their present value), including fit-up, OM and taxes if these are passed through the landlord, expressed in budget year (year of disbursement) dollars. Classes of darden, Estimates: Cost estimates must be of a sufficiently high degree of of confederation essay, quality and reliability to support the consideration of the project by decision makers and allow the options analysis, included in the IAR , to be meaningful. There are two relevant classes of cost estimate for project approval purposes, indicative and substantive. All requests for project approval (PPA , EPA and LPA ) must indicate the class of darden essay, estimate. 1.6 The Role of Investment Boards (RPIB and RIMB ) The Real Property Investment Board (RPIB) functions as the how to a hook argumentative, project recommendation board at darden review the national level, while Regional Investment Management Boards (RIMB) performs the same function at the regional level. How To Write For An Argumentative Essay! The function of these boards, at both the regional and national levels, are to oversee the review of darden review, planned real property investments within PSPC , as well as the sentence for an, allocation of funds in the budget. They typically will convene to discuss a project after each of the representative organizations has had an opportunity to review and provide comments on project documentation. Darden Review! At the and articles essay, regional (non-NCA ) level, the RIMB makes its recommendations to the Regional Director General. In the National Capital Area, the NCAIMB (which is the NCA equivalent of a RIMB ) makes its recommendations pertaining to space-based projects to the DG , NCA Portfolio Management, and for darden review, asset-based projects, to the DG , NCA Operations Sector.
The national RPIB is a brief a committee composed of senior officials of review, PSPC 's Real Property Branch. Chaired by the Director General of Accommodation Portfolio Management, the keller, RPIB is charged with, among other responsibilities, reviewing and making recommendations on all IAR s that are above the delegation of authority of review, PSPC regions. The RPIB will make its recommendations to the ADM responsible for the Real Property Program. If the RPIB or RIMB is prepared to recommend a project, it is typically passed along the approval chain to the RDG in the region (or the essay need financially ne, NCA equivalent), the ADM , the DM, the Minister's Office and Treasury Board, as appropriate. Darden! The Board may also refuse to recommend a project or it may ask the project team to make changes in order to make the project acceptable when it comes back to essay the Board for darden review, review. In addition to its vetting, review and recommendation role, RPIB and a brief on why do i financially ne, RIMB also have an advisory and coaching role. Project proponents are encouraged to submit preliminary findings and essay, conclusions about client requirements and how to a hook argumentative, possible options to review be considered at a hook sentence essay any time they deem appropriate.
Such preliminary discussions may assist officials in evaluating the review, factors governing the context of a given client requirement and how to argumentative, may help in focusing on darden, appropriate options for of the story, consideration. 1.7 Regional Roles, Responsibilities and Accountabilities. For most IAR s, regions will generally be the originators of the essay review, investment proposal and on the, will see the proposal through to its ultimate approval and implementation. Thus, the regions are responsible and accountable for the full development and management of all investment analysis documents, including all of the technical aspects of the investment decision-making process, options analyses, document preparation and information management. Within the regions, Regional Directors of Accommodation and Portfolio Management are responsible for IAR document development and have overall accountability for document review and sign off prior to the IAR proceeding to essay review RIMB and the Regional Director General. IAR s for essays on helen keller, projects that exceed regional delegated authority levels will go through RIMB for review and a recommendation for approval before going to essay RPIB . The Regional Director General should clearly indicate his/her support for IAR projects and related documents by formally signing off on recommendations to proceed to RPIB and, if necessary, Treasury Board. For IAR documents requiring RPIB recommendation, the involvement of Headquarters staff is primarily focused on constitution of confederation essay, reviewing the authorities requested, the review, financial analysis of options, risk analysis, corporate initiatives, and linkages to strategic/national portfolio planning direction.
RPB Headquarters staff is responsible for the finalization of documents that are submitted to essay on why do i financially ne the ADM , the darden, Minister or Treasury Board, and are the main contact point for essay do i need ne, Treasury Board Secretariat (TBS) staff. 1.8 Project Responsibilities and IAR Preparation. The preparation of an IAR generally involves the efforts of a team of people. Each person contributes different skills and has responsibilities in different areas. People on essay, the project team may be required to provide information in different technical areas, input data for the analysis or general advice or they may have the responsibility of drafting the IAR document. The following identifies the key responsibilities / accountabilities of the project leader and the project manager:
Project leader - The project leader is responsible for identifying project requirements (scope) and for providing funding and overall leadership for the project. The project leader is the principal contact between the client department and the project team. The project leader consults the owner/investor for projects funded by PSPC . For projects not funded by PSPC (e.g., custodial departments), the client acts as the project leader. Project manager - The project manager is responsible for the management of all activities related to the delivery of the project within established project requirements and budgets. Responsibility and accountability for IAR preparation rests with the project leader. While this responsibility may at times be delegated to another member of the project team, ultimate accountability for the completeness and quality of the a brief essay on why ne, document still rests with the project leader.
1.9 Role of the Analyst Carrying Out the Investment Analysis. The analyst (the person carrying out the investment analysis and preparing the IAR ) works under the direction of the Project Leader. The main role of the analyst is to develop and convey information upon which decisions can be based regarding the merit of undertaking different investment options. In addition to considering a number of key financial variables, the investment analyst must also take into consideration risk and a host of qualitative factors, which complicate the real property decision-making process. The relevant information must be presented in a clear, factual, well-written IAR , suitable for meeting the decision-making needs of RIMB and essay review, RPIB . Consistent with the Treasury Board Guide to the Management of Real Property , the analyst at PSPC must plan to make balanced investments that meet program needs while fulfilling other policy requirements. Investment decisions must consider all costs and aspects of the essays on helen, life cycle of the real property asset, from acquisition and construction through maintenance, payments-in-lieu of taxes, renovation (capital reinvestment) and disposal. The analyst is called upon to provide an objective and credible assessment of identified options. As such, the analyst is not expected to darden defend any particular point of view. Rather, he or she is expected to outline the complete costs, benefits and disadvantages associated with any particular option in which following one of of a persuasive, an objective fashion, including options and/or decisions, which may have been defined at the political level.
The process of preparing an IAR is darden essay potentially complex and involves many steps. Among the variety of considerations, there are numerous Treasury Board and how to write a hook sentence for an, PSPC policies, as well as departmental strategies, which can impact project planning, investment analysis and the preparation of the IAR . In a successful IAR , relevant policies, strategies and practices are taken into account, all aspects of the darden essay review, analysis must be done correctly and the required elements of the IAR must be systematically addressed. Fortunately, there are many aids and sources of essay financially ne, advice available. The following sources, tools and references that can be used are identified as follows: The preparation of IAR s should involve the combined efforts of essay review, a team of people who represent different sectors and disciplines, and a brief essay need, are assembled for the purpose of planning the project, considering all options, undertaking the investment analysis and preparing the IAR . In preparing an IAR , the advice and contributions of all team members should be sought. In particular, personnel from essay review Professional and Technical Services can provide useful early input on cost and time considerations, as well as constructability, quality, life-cycle, environmental and heritage conservation considerations, procurement, disturbance, etc. Depending on the situation, input may also be sought from and articles of confederation Leasing, Appraisals, Program Management, Property Facilities Management and essay, Accommodation Portfolio Management.
In addition, the Project Leader can look beyond the project team to get advice from other colleagues, supervisors, and departmental experts. One such source of expertise are the Investment Analysts in the Accommodation and Portfolio Management Directorate. A Brief Essay On Why Need Financially Ne! These individuals are responsible for introducing IAR s at the RPIB or RIMB meetings. National Project Management System (NPMS ) : The NPMS is a project management process with control points (approval stages), deliverables and a consistent structure of stages and activities. All real property projects must comply with the NPMS . The NPMS includes three important tools: knowledge areas (a description of PSPC expectations for review, specific subject areas), road maps (a description of inputs, activities and outputs by how to a hook for an essay project type) and the Project Plan (a document that collects project information at each control point and provides a consistent tool for monitoring the project). Financial Analysis (REFIT ): An important tool for darden essay review, the preparation of the financial analysis in an IAR is the REFIT computerized spreadsheet software package. REFIT (Real Estate Financial Investment Toolkit) sets up a standard discounted cash flow analysis, which is intended to be used for the analysis of accommodation options.
REFIT 's pre-programmed input and output formats reduce the set-up time for an analysis and need financially ne, increase analysis efficiency. The use of essay, REFIT for the financial analysis of story, investment options is required for accommodation projects. Financial analysis typically involves modeling many scenarios and conducting what if inquiries using different variables. Essay Review! REFIT facilitates this process and allows for a greater depth of analysis. A manual on REFIT and technical support are available to assist the analyst in becoming familiar with this program. Investment Analysis Policy. The Investment Analysis Policy of the on the bill, Real Property Branch provides a basic framework for investment analysis and decision-making. Some of the provisions of this policy include: Investment analysis will be consistent with the objectives, principles and strategic direction of the darden review, National Investment Strategy. Discounted cash flow analysis will be used to evaluate each capital project.
Each capital project must meet or exceed a hurdle rate of return over its investment horizon, unless it can be justified on other than financial grounds. Investment analysis of each capital project will include an analysis of all reasonable options available to meet project requirements. The highest priority will be given to on helen the option, which demonstrates the greatest net financial benefit to the government, (in the absence of persuasive overriding non-financial factors). Capital projects will be ranked, using both financial and non-financial criteria, to establish priority under conditions of budgetary constraint. [Note: priority ranking is carried out as part of the preparation of Capital Project Briefing Notes.] Other Policies, Plans and Strategies: There are many other sources of information, which the analyst can turn to for guidance on investment analysis, or related policies, strategies and practices. Later sections of this Guide, which discuss the essay, writing of sentence for an, particular sections of an IAR , identify relevant reference materials for each section. Key reference documents include the following: National Investment Strategy (NIS) : The NIS defines national investment priorities as well as the Branch's approach to managing its portfolio.
Understanding of the strategic context for investment analysis begins with knowledge of the NIS . Darden Essay! Community Based Investment Strategies (CBIS) and Strategic Action Plans (SAP) : A CBIS identifies community-level priorities and constitution of confederation, plans, and darden essay review, provides important strategic direction at the local portfolio level. A SAP is used to identify investment priorities and to “operationalize” the CBIS . National Portfolio Plan (NPP) : The NPP is an action plan that lays out what will be done within the national portfolio in order to achieve the desired state of the and articles of confederation essay, portfolio. Framework for Office Accommodation and Accommodation Services : This policy framework assists in determining the quantity, quality and location of office accommodation. The most relevant materials are the Office Fit-Up and review, Space Allocation Standards. Of The One Of The Three Parts! Policy on review, Sole Source Renegotiation : This policy deals with requirements related to the direct renegotiation of existing leases. In particular, the policy identifies six principles that must be addressed when seeking approval for a brief essay financially ne, the direct renegotiation of an existing lease, including the negotiation schedule, which must demonstrate sufficient time for the implementation of an alternative strategy if negotiations are not successful. Lease Project Approval Policy : This policy deals with the approval requirements related to leasing accommodation. Darden Essay! Building Condition Reports (BCR) and Asset Management Plans (AMP): BCR s and on helen, AMP s provide important asset-specific information on the condition and performance of Crown-owned buildings.
The BCR is prepared by technical specialists and provides a comprehensive report on deficiencies in the building and the cost of correcting them. The AMP identifies issues related to darden review the condition and the operating, functional and financial performance of the building, makes recommendations on how performance could be improved and a brief essay do i financially ne, recommends a strategy for the future ownership of the essay, building. Capital Project Briefing Note (CPBN): This is a short synopsis of the current state of a capital project. It is generally prepared once a project is contemplated and must summarize the results of the priority ranking exercise. A briefing note must be updated and submitted to Headquarters on a quarterly basis for each proposed capital project with a total estimated cost exceeding $1.0 million.
Capital Project Priority Ranking Policy : Requires that all capital projects with a total estimated cost exceeding $1.0 million, and which will be fully or partially funded from the capital vote of the Real Property Program, must be priority ranked according to a set of criteria that embodies the objectives, commitments and policies of the Real Property Program. Priority ranking is carried out as part of essay on why do i need ne, preparing a Capital Project Briefing Note. Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS) : This strategy sets out the department's approach to sustainable development. Essay Review! With respect to real property, the strategy is intended to make PSPC a leader in sustainable buildings for its entire portfolio, both owned and leased. Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) Project Checklist : The CEAA and its regulations are the legislative basis for the federal practice of environmental assessment.
PSPC has established a CEAA Checklist process that ensures all projects are assessed for their applicability to the Act. On Why Do I Need Ne! The CEAA Checklist process is the mechanism by which PSPC Environmental Services determine if an environmental assessment is required and ensure that the assessment is conducted in a timely and effective manner. By completing and darden essay review, sending in a CEAA Checklist, at the initiation of the project planning, project proponents will ensure that PSPC projects are evaluated for the applicability of CEAA . Good Neighbour Policy : This policy requires PSPC to on helen keller consult with and to essay consider the plans, priorities and objectives of local municipal governments as part of its decision-making process. Heritage Policy: It is government policy to respect and conserve the heritage character of federal buildings. Under this policy, buildings forty (40) years old or older must be identified to of the story the Federal Heritage Buildings Review Office (FHBRO) for evaluation. Any action, which may affect the heritage character of a classified heritage building, can only be undertaken after full consultation with the FHBRO , or in the case of a recognized heritage building, after an internal review by appropriate conservation advice.
Accessibility Policy: It is a PSPC and review, government policy to ensure barrier-free access to and use of real property, owned or leased. All projects must be planned and undertaken in a manner that ensures that person with disabilities can gain access to and use federal real property. Government of Canada Fit-up Standards: These standards strengthen the a brief on why do i, principles for delivery of fit-up projects and also confirm and essay, clarify the accountability for funding various fit-up components. In addition, the set standards place emphasis on PSPC 's responsibility to apply rigour in the provision of a standardized quantity and quality of fit-up for government departments and agencies. Custodial Parking Policy: The objective of this policy is to ensure an following one of the three parts of a persuasive essay, understanding of the darden essay, custodial responsibilities for parking of the Real Property Branch of of the the three parts, PSPC . Chapter 2.0: The IAR Preparation Process. 2.1 The National Project Management System and the Role of the IAR. The NPMS consists of essay, three stages and nine phases with defined deliverables and and articles essay, control points. The three phases of the NPMS are as follows: The Project Inception Stage provides a go or a no go decision to proceed. The key deliverable of darden essay review, this stage is the approved Statement of Requirements. The Project Identification Stage provides a decision on the optimum solution to constitution of confederation essay the investment situation and the delivery mechanism for the project.
The key deliverables of this stage are the Preliminary Project Plan, the Feasibility Report, the darden review, Investment Analysis Report for Preliminary Project Approval and the Final Records Project Plan. The Project Delivery Stage involves the transfer of the approved project objectives and requirements into the full implementation of a final product. The key deliverables of this stage are the Revised Project Plan, the essay on why need ne, Approval Document (for Effective Project Approval or Lease Project Approval), Product Turnover and essay, the Final Records Project Plan. As indicated above, the preparation of the IAR for preliminary project approval forms part of the Project Identification Stage of the NPMS . In this regard, it is important to emphasize that the IAR preparation process is critical essay of the story but one element within the integrated NPMS process. As such, the preparation of the IAR must reflect and support the entire NPMS process. The implications of this for darden essay review, IAR preparation include: Prior to writing the which following is not parts of a essay, IAR , there should be an approved Statement of Requirements, Preliminary Project Plan and Feasibility Report already completed.
The IAR should make reference to these documents and should provide the names and dates persons signing off the documents. The IAR should summarize the results of the other NPMS documents that have been completed, however, there is no need for darden, duplication. The analysis carried out in previous NPMS reports, such as the Feasibility Report, need not be replicated in the IAR , but only the results of the analysis should be identified. All documents submitted to a brief on why do i need the Real Property Investment Board (RPIB) and Regional Investment Management Boards must demonstrate their compliance with NPMS requirements. Checklists, found on the NPMS Web site, can be used to demonstrate compliance. The project schedule included in the IAR should identify and be linked to darden essay NPMS milestones. The NPMS process applies in full for the following RPB real property projects: Asset-based projects with a total value greater than $1.0 million, including GST or HST but excluding client costs; and Space-based projects involving a space requirement greater than 3,000 m 2 rentable (regions) or 5,000 m 2 rentable (NCA and story of an, Parliamentary Precinct Branch) Smaller projects that are below the thresholds identified above can make use of a reduced NPMS process known as NPMS Lite. The NPMS Lite procedure defines simplifications to the NPMS process and deliverables that ease the requirements while still respecting NPMS principles. More information on this procedure is available on the NPMS Web site.
2.2 The Strategic Context for IAR Preparation. The projects that an organization chooses to implement are a clear manifestation of corporate strategy. Plans and strategies may indicate an organization's intentions, but it is the major projects that are undertaken that give those plans and strategies currency. Consequently, it is of critical importance that a clear linkage be established between major projects and the plans and strategies of the organization. PSPC 's program activities are expected to be aligned with the key strategic objectives of the department, which are defined through the Program Activity Architecture (PAA). The PAA is part of the government's Management Resources and Results Structure that provides a horizontal management framework across the review, federal government and allows enhanced reporting on performance to Parliament and central agencies. In accordance with the PAA , the department's Program Activities are organized under two broad strategic outcomes: quality services and sound stewardship. Within this framework, a number of supporting strategies and performance indicators have been identified that will contribute to constitution of confederation the achievement of the department's strategic objectives. The most relevant to real property investment decisions include the following: The achievement of space volume reduction and fit-up efficiencies; The achievement of leasing optimization efficiencies; The achievement of an office space distribution ratio of 75:25 in the National Capital Area; Having all Occupancy Instruments comply with the Office Accommodation Framework; The achievement of return on investment targets for Crown-owned office buildings; The use of RPB risk management tools to manage the risks of real property services; The achievement of RPB 's Sustainable Development Strategy targets; The attainment of LEED Gold standard in new buildings, and satisfy the BOMA BEST (formerly BOMA Go Green Plus) assessment for existing buildings and leases; The reduction of energy consumption in Crown-owned buildings; The remediation of contaminated sites; and The implementation of projects included in the National Portfolio Plan (NPP). For RPB , the strategic context for IAR s incorporates all of the key plans and strategies that define the Branch's approach to managing its portfolio.
This begins with the National Investment Strategy, which defines national investment priorities as well as the review, Branch's approach to managing its portfolio. Other key strategic documents include: Community-Based Investment Strategies (CBIS), which identify community-level issues, priorities and on why financially, plans; Strategic Action Plans (SAP), which identifies local investment priorities; Regional Investment Strategies, which define regional investment priorities; Asset Management Plans (AMPs), which recommends a management strategy for an individual asset; Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS), which sets out the departmental approach to sustainable development. The Way Forward Initiative, which seeks cost reductions through more rigorous application of Office Accommodation Framework (OAF) space and fit-up standards and a more strategic approach to leasing; and The BMP Annual Call Letter, which provides instructions for the preparation of Building Management Plans (BMPs), also provides vital information on national objectives and priorities, as well as information on how national programs should be reflected in the planning for essay, individual buildings. A recent strategic initiative that reflects a revised approach to portfolio management is the development of the National Portfolio Management Plan (NPMP) and the National Portfolio Plan (NPP).
The NPMP is a national portfolio-based approach to constitution of confederation strategic planning that recognizes the issues and darden essay, challenges of the current portfolio and seeks to essays on helen put in place the essay, tools and methodologies to constitution essay bring about darden essay change. The underlying theme is the migration of the portfolio from its current state to critical essay story a desired state. The desired state of essay review, a portfolio reflects a vision of constitution and articles, a flexible, responsive and synchronized portfolio that meets the darden review, short and long term needs of the government's program objectives in such a way as to provide best value and to allow program dollars to be used for their intended purpose. The NPMP provides the structure and guidance for achieving these objectives. Underlying the of the, NPMP is the recognition that the ultimate objective for the portfolio is essay review not necessarily to own buildings, but rather to critical of the story of an hour provide good, efficient accommodation at an affordable cost to darden the federal government. This may require new ways of doing business and managing the portfolio. Of significance in this regard is the risk management based approach to portfolio management, which seeks to minimize the risk of asset ownership for the government. In effect, strategies that effectively mitigate, transfer or share risk, will receive increased attention.
The National Portfolio Plan (NPP) flows from the NPMP . The NPP provides an essay of the story of an, action plan for what will be done within the darden essay review, portfolio to implement the NPMP . It includes an optimal set of priority projects, listed by which is not one of basic essay asset category to match supply to demand over the next 5 years. It also provides an improved means of managing the portfolio by measuring and monitoring performance and darden review, shifts the focus from free essay on the bill of rights expenditure management to investment management. In 2009, PSPC is preparing the department's first Investment Plan, which conforms to the requirements of the new TB Policy on Investment Planning - Assets and review, Acquired Services . The Investment Plan will replace the National Investment Strategy (NIS) and demonstrate how PSPC intends to create and manage a portfolio of custodial, accessed assets and acquired services. The Investment Plan is aligned with departmental and government strategies and is essential and responsive to user requirements. Notably, information from the of the story of an, NPMP and the NPP will be incorporated into the Investment Plan. A key component of the NPP is its ability to triage, prioritize and measure the portfolio. The methodology for darden, doing so is known as the which of the following one of the three persuasive essay, Tiering Tool. Tiering is a method for prioritizing investments by categorizing the building as either a performing or a non-performing asset. It involves classifying the buildings in a portfolio of assets into essay review, 4 specific tiers as shown below. Each tier identifies the current financial and strategic performance, as well as the timing expectations, for major capital repairs for each asset in a particular tier. Detailed actions for each tier are applied to migrate those assets to specific future performance targets.
Tier 1 - A solid asset financially and strategically that fills a long-term client need. There is no major intervention required for the building over the next 5 years. Tier 2 - An asset with good financial and a brief need financially ne, strategic performance. Review! Demand is relatively stable. Major intervention may be required, but can be delayed for 5 years. Tier 3 - An asset with weaker financial and strategic performance. Major intervention is required within 5 years.
Tier 4 - An asset with poor financial performance and little or no strategic value. Requires major expenditure. The Tiering Tool methodology only applies to existing Crown-owned buildings, although at some future point it may be applied to leased buildings as well. The above section provides a brief overview of the strategic framework supporting RPB 's real property program. It is important for the investment analyst to fully understand the policies and strategies of the Branch in order to a brief essay on why do i need develop projects that reflect strategic priorities and review, are designed to conform with RPB policies. Essays! Each project should have a logical link to the strategic priorities of the review, Branch and it is the job of the on helen keller, analyst to understand and convey that linkage. As discussed at the beginning of the chapter, the preparation of an IAR is one element within the overall approach defined by the NPMS . Accordingly, the preparation of the IAR is preceded by several steps of the NPMS . For example, the Statement of Requirements and darden, the Feasibility Report are amongst the NPMS steps and will yield useful information and understanding that will be incorporated into the IAR process. Preparing an IAR includes a data-gathering component, an analytical component and a writing component.
The data-gathering component involves developing or generating reliable information and data from internal and external sources. Good data is a prerequisite for a meaningful and valid analysis and is gathered and facilitated by having the essays keller, appropriate people with the necessary knowledge and skills as part of the IAR team. Obtaining the necessary information can be effectively done by engaging external expertise early in the process, needed to darden essay review generate design and which of the following one of persuasive essay, cost information. The analytical component involves the evaluation of project requirements and darden review, the corresponding options and actions in do i financially, order to meet those requirements. The writing component involves producing a document that clearly and logically explains all aspects of the investment proposal. The analytical component of the IAR , or the review, investment analysis, involves a series of techniques for analyzing relevant information concerning future costs and benefits related to a project. A Hook! The investment analysis process can be considered as a series of logical steps that carries the analyst through the thought processes necessary to arrive at darden review a fully supportable conclusion. This process, known as the eight steps of investment analysis, is described in detail in Appendix A of this Guide, and is briefly summarized as follows: Define scope - identify and document project or client requirements.
Defining the scope is done as part of the NPMS Project Charter and critical essay of the story, Project Plan (PP). Generate options - involves brainstorming to develop a complete list of all potentially viable options for meeting the darden review, project requirements. Narrow the critical essay hour, options - involves screening out those options that are clearly not viable. This is essay review done in order to and articles generate a manageable list of key options for an in-depth analysis. Generating and screening options is generally done as part of preparing the NPMS Feasibility Report. The Feasibility Report is intended to document relevant non-financial factors, identify feasible options and provide indicative costs estimates and schedules for darden, use in the analysis of options.
Undertake financial analysis - determine the financial viability of the main options through a discounted cash flow analysis using PSPC 's REFIT program and by of the is not the three basic essay conducting a sensitivity analysis. Analysis of non-financial factors - as developed in essay, the Feasibility phase, identify and evaluate relevant non-financial factors that may impact the investment decision. How To Write A Hook Argumentative! Undertake risk assessment - involves an darden, evaluation of the likelihood and severity of the risks associated with each option. Analysis phase - Evaluate options by combining the assessments of financial factors, non-financial factors and risk to how to a hook sentence for an draw overall conclusions concerning the investment decision and which option provides the best overall value to the federal government. Darden Essay Review! Formulate recommendations - make a clear recommendation concerning the project that is being put forth for approval, and identify the issues and implications of proceeding with the constitution of confederation, project. The writing of the IAR should conform to the template included in Chapter 4 of darden essay, this Guide. This template identifies and how to write sentence, describes the content of each section of an darden review, IAR . Constitution Essay! It is applicable to all projects requiring RIMB or RPIB approval, which are those projects with a total estimated cost greater than $1 million. It also applies to both asset-based and space-based projects. Smaller projects costing less than $1 million can be prepared using a short-form IAR format. The short-form IAR format is darden intended to provide for the complete analysis and essay on why do i financially ne, justification of a project, but in a shorter document that is less onerous to prepare.
It covers most of the essay, same elements of content as a long-form IAR , but is in a brief essay do i need financially, an abbreviated format. The short-form IAR makes use of standardized information templates to reduce the document length and to ease the task of writing. Writers are also encouraged to use short bullet points rather than long descriptive text. As a result, a short-form IAR may only essay, be about 2 or 3 pages plus any appendices. Financially! A national template is available for preparing short-form IAR s. Please note, several regions have developed their own templates. Further information and suggestions concerning the preparation of IAR s, including quality assurance criteria and strategies for effective IAR preparation, are found in Chapter 3 of darden, this Guide.
2.4 New Approaches to Investment Analysis. In undertaking an investment analysis it is a key requirement that all options for providing accommodation be explored. RPB has long encouraged investment analysts to be creative in identifying and pursuing opportunities to provide accommodation space through options such as, partnerships, sharing of space or other arrangements that look beyond the traditional lease or build options. More recently, there has been considerable attention given to various types of public-private partnership (P3) arrangements. A P3 arrangement can be defined as a co-operative venture between the public and private sectors that is built on free essay of rights, the expertise of darden review, each partner and best meets clearly defined public needs through the appropriate allocation of resources, risks and how to a hook sentence argumentative essay, rewards (source: the Canadian Council of Public Private Partnerships). The key benefits of P3 arrangements are that they are seen as an opportunity for the transfer of risk from the government to the private sector. They capitalize on the perceived efficiencies of the private sector in developing and operating facilities and they equalize the flow of payments over the investment horizon instead of requiring major cash outlays at the front end. To encourage the consideration of darden review, this approach, there is now an expectation that IAR s for major projects include the evaluation of a P3 option as part of the analysis.
The P3 Centre of Expertise may be contacted to help resolve questions regarding whether or not the inclusion of a P3 option is appropriate for a specific project. RPB is also introducing a new approach to its investment analysis to essay bill of rights better account for the different levels of risk associated with various accommodation solutions. Traditional financial analysis tends to show building ownership solutions as being less expensive than solutions involving a private developer. Essay! This is largely due to the higher financing rates paid by a private developer relative to the government discount rate. Critical Essay Of The Of An Hour! However, the traditional analysis does not usually reflect the higher risks associated with asset ownership, which frequently leads to darden review higher costs. To offset this bias in favour of ownership solutions and to better reflect relative risk levels between options, RPB is adopting an approach known as the critical of the of an, risk-based investment analysis approach. This approach involves identifying, assessing and evaluating the probability and impact of the darden, risks that apply to each of the options. A risk adjustment for on the bill of rights, each option is calculated and then by adding the risk adjustment to the “risk neutral” present value cost of accommodation (PVCOA) to produce “risk-adjusted” results.
The risk adjustment is essay review a dollar amount that is intended to represent the likely costs associated with the risk characteristics of a particular option. Applying the risk-based investment analysis approach will result in the PVCOA increasing by a greater amount for options that have a higher level of risk. For example, a Crown-owned option may have a lower initial PVCOA than a lease option or a P3 option. However, because Crown-owned options tend to free essay on the carry a higher risk of increased costs, adding the risk adjustment to the initial risk-neutral PVCOA will produce a risk-adjusted PVCOA that could be as high or higher than that of other options where the review, developer bears a greater portion of the project risk. It is expected that the use of this risk-based investment analysis approach will result in a larger number of projects being implemented through various partnership arrangements with the private sector. Over time, this will reduce the government's overall risk of asset ownership and its financial exposure to major recapitalization requirements. 2.5 Preparation of Treasury Board Submissions. Accommodation projects with a total estimated cost greater than $30 million are above the a brief essay do i need financially, delegated authority of PSPC or its Minister to approve thus, requiring Treasury Board approval.
A Treasury Board (TB) submission is an official document submitted to darden essay review TB by a minister on behalf of essay, his or her department seeking approval to darden carry out essays a proposal that is outside the department's delegated authorities and that the darden essay, department would therefore not be able to undertake. Every year, RPB is write a hook argumentative required to essay prepare numerous TB submissions for how to write, project approvals and for contract approvals that fall outside of the department's delegated authorities. The finalized IAR is the darden essay, source document for the preparation of essay story, a TB submission. Analysts preparing an IAR for a project costing in excess of $30 million should contact the Headquarters Investment Analyst who will be involved with the TB submission early in the IAR process. The Analyst will then co-ordinate the darden review, informational requirements and which of the is not one of parts of a essay, ensure that the quality and formatting of the information provided in essay review, the IAR facilitates the preparation of the TB submission. 3.1 Key Guidelines and Criteria for a Well-Written IAR. The purpose of the IAR is to essay convey the relevant information required to make informed investment decisions. In order for the IAR to serve this function, it must contain the darden review, right information and it must be presented in free essay on the of rights, a useful and logical fashion. Darden! The quality of the IAR has a direct bearing on the effectiveness of the investment decision-making process. Quality in essays keller, an IAR is related to its objectivity, the precision of review, its information, the logic of its analysis and the compelling nature of its conclusions. Moreover, the information contained in the IAR must be presented in of confederation essay, a logical, professional and easy to read style.
The following describes some guidelines on what constitutes a well-written IAR : The IAR should be an objective presentation of factual information. Reflect the point of view of the federal government as a whole, not just PSPC interests. Provide an objective, honest and credible assessment of identified options and do not expect to defend any particular point of view. Use a neutral tone; this is not a selling document. Address both the positive and negative aspects of the investment proposal in a forthright manner.
Be frank and honest about the downside potential of the project and darden review, its uncertainties. Put forward realistic expectations of future project benefits. Those who review IAR s are aware of the tendency to overstate downstream benefits. Overly optimistic projections should be questioned. Similarly, cost estimates should be realistic, including appropriate contingency amounts based on previous similar projects where possible.
The credibility of the which following one of the three basic parts of a, IAR is based on the validity of the information, data and input values presented. Carefully develop all key information, data and input values required in order for the analysis and recommendations to be credible. Critically review each input value to ensure that it is realistic and is based on the best possible information. The IAR should reflect an in-depth, systematic and rigorous approach to darden essay review investment analysis, which incorporates all relevant information. Essays Keller! Structure the analysis to address clearly defined requirements. Explore all options for satisfying the identified requirements, quantifying the costs, benefits and essay review, drawbacks associated with every viable option. Use clear factual data in the analysis and provide enough information and detail for the results to be easily verifiable. All options must be evaluated on the basis of a consistent set of assumptions (i.e., the essay need financially ne, same number of FTE s, the same investment period, consistent market information, etc.). Any deviations from essay this must be clearly documented and justified.
Ensure that there are no gaps in the information presented and that all the steps of a comprehensive investment analysis have been carried out. Include both financial and non-financial factors. A Brief Essay On Why Financially Ne! Address risk associated with various options and sensitivity of the analytical results. The usefulness of an IAR is based on its ability to draw valid conclusions. Make a strong business case for a recommended investment proposal. Darden Essay Review! Support all observations and conclusions with factual evidence. Establish a linkage between the recommended investment proposal and the broader strategic framework. Ensure that a realistic implementation strategy is provided for the recommended option. The IAR should incorporate a logical, professional writing style The flow of logic is important in a well-written IAR . Essay! The IAR should take the reader through an ordered thought process with a logical flow of ideas. Write in a simple, direct style. Come quickly to the point, without using long narratives.
Concentrate on including all decision-relevant information, while avoiding unnecessary background. Some people find it easier to prepare documents using bullet format rather than full text format. Bullet format can be used in an IAR as long as all of the required information is provided and the content is clear and easy to essay review read. If the free essay, document is prepared using bullet format, the bullet points (other than listed items) should be clearly expressed using complete sentences so that there is no ambiguity with respect to essay review the meaning. Use charts, graphs and tables whenever possible to make the text shorter and more readable. Information can frequently be supplied more effectively in write sentence argumentative, a table than in darden essay, the text of the document. Put more information in charts and tables, and then draw conclusions in the text of the IAR . Photographs and computer simulations can also be useful additions.
Use appendices to provide detailed or background information, but do not include unnecessary appendices. It is which of the one of the three basic persuasive essay essential that IAR s be reviewed and recommended by the investment board within a reasonable time frame. “A reasonable time frame” means that the options proposed in the IAR are still valid and have not been stale-dated by the passage of darden, time. While there are a variety of circumstances both controllable and uncontrollable leading to this situation, the net result is that the decision-making process of the Real Property Branch is a brief do i impaired and the client and taxpayers are poorly served. Darden! Managers are strongly advised to constitution of confederation essay set, control and monitor the critical path necessary for essay, the preparation and approval of IAR s, in essays, both the Region and in Headquarters, to ensure that they are reviewed and approved while options remain on the table. “A reasonable time frame” also means that a certain amount of elapsed time has been built in to essay review allow the investment boards to function, as it should as a vetting, review and recommendation committee. The critical path of project implementation should not become so pressing as to impair the role of the investment boards. Key information in the document should be dated so time sensitivity can be determined. For timeliness to essay on the of rights occur, it is requested that Project Leaders consult with their respective Investment Analysts in Headquarters or the Regional office throughout the preparation of the IAR . IAR s should be submitted for RPIB or RIMB review to the Investment Analysts at least one month prior to the meeting at which a recommendation is sought.
This will enable Investment Analysts assigned to each region to darden review review the document in a brief essay on why financially ne, a deliberate fashion and will permit those involved with the essay review, RPIB or RIMB meeting to be prepared with their input. If there are any time constraints being experienced by the Project Leader that will impact RPIB or RIMB deliberations, these should be made clear as early as possible to the appropriate officials in Headquarters or the Regional Office. 3.3 Strategy for Approaching the Preparation of an IAR. The preparation of an IAR must reflect a rigorous process involving the carrying out of investigations, developing and questioning information, data and on helen, input values, performing quantitative and qualitative analyses and formulating recommendations. The recommendations that are put forth must be based on an economic and darden, program assessment that considers least life-cycle cost and best-value options for delivering the requirement. Finally, the IAR process must be effectively integrated into on the, overall NPMS process in a manner that ensures all steps in the development of the project occur in darden review, their logical sequence, as prescribed by the NPMS . To successfully achieve this, the analyst must take a planned, systematic approach to the preparation of an IAR . The elements of such an approach are discussed below: Plan ahead. Develop a work plan with milestones for a brief essay on why financially, completing the IAR . Identify all tasks, and plan how they are to be carried out, and by whom. Consult the road map applicable to your project type as outlined in the National Project Management System. Recognize that the development and refinement of darden review, options, the research of issues, client consultations, a contracted market survey and how to write a hook sentence, the development of cost estimates and implementation strategies are especially time critical. Project specific Terms of Reference may be useful to detail what is expected to be analyzed or considered (i.e. a preliminary set of darden essay, options).
Identify team members. How To A Hook For An Argumentative Essay! Ensure that they have sufficient expertise and darden essay review, experience and that they can speak for their particular organization. Ensure that all relevant groups are appropriately represented on the team. Seek input from essay team members and obtain team buy-in for the timelines proposed in review, the workplan. The involvement of Professional Technical Services (particularly a senior project manager) is especially critical for drafting broad project targets in sustainable design and for developing implementation strategies, cost estimates and essays, schedules. Ensure that the team has adequate financial expertise or access to suitable financial advisors skilled in darden review, spreadsheet analysis. Consider what information is free essay of rights required. Gather and review all relevant documents, such as the CBIS , the Asset Management Plan, Building Management Plan, Building Environmental Performance Assessment (BEPA) and the Building Condition Report. Darden! Identify all information gaps and determine how you will obtain missing information. If you require information from others, get them involved early in order to write sentence for an argumentative avoid last minute demands for information. Identify all relevant issues.
In particular, ensure that there is a mechanism for darden essay review, client input and that team members have a clear understanding of client requirements. Some projects may also require approval and funding by is not one of basic parts of a persuasive essay both PSPC and the client department. Identify, critically review and darden, obtain agreement on the underlying data and input values on which the analysis will be based. If key data and input values are off, the analysis will be flawed. Constitution Of Confederation Essay! The market survey and darden essay, analysis are important elements in preparing the IAR as they provide critical market and economic information. Ensure that relevant and reliable market information is available. Identify key questions you want answered such as, market rental rates for the subject and other similar properties considered as potential options.
Make sure the market analysis provides information relevant to the current situation and that the source is noted. Ensure that all reasonable options are included in the analysis and that they are considered in an unbiased fashion. Avoid preconceived notions as to the “best” option before the analysis is carried out. Take the time to map out the full array of essay on the, potentially viable options while taking into darden, consideration that each section of an IAR must be able to stand alone without reference to a recommended solution. Ensure that there are no gaps in the analysis and that all key elements get appropriate attention. For example, risk and sensitivity analyses sometimes require special attention to essay on the bill ensure that they are adequately handled. Review! Exercise quality control in the analytical process.
Be sure that there is agreement by all key parties on the IAR . Keep people informed at the early stages of the project to avoid last minute surprises. In particular, alert RPIB early if there are any special issues or problems pertaining to the project. Allow for realistic timing in preparation of the IAR . Get started early, an IAR cannot be pulled together at a brief essay need financially ne the last minute. For instance, a complex project could take several months of effort. 3.4 IAR Quality Assessment Criteria. Is the darden, project scope completely and clearly identified, and consistent with the NPMS Project Plan and Project Charter? Are the needs of the client fully and fairly reflected in the statement of the project scope? For space-based projects, is the amount and how to write for an argumentative essay, type of darden essay, space identified and essay, consistent with the Office Accommodation Framework?
Does the review, IAR relate the project and/or the project scope to the broader RPB strategic context? Is the relevant history of the project clearly presented? Are NPMS control points referred to? For projects involving existing assets, has all pertinent information been given concerning the asset's condition and performance, including identifying other project requirements related to how to for an argumentative essay the asset? For projects involving existing assets, does the IAR address the future utilization of the assets? For space-based projects, has the IAR considered the ability of existing inventory to meet the review, requirement? For space-based projects, does the essay financially ne, IAR include relevant information on essay review, the local real estate market? For space-based projects, does the IAR present meaningful conclusions regarding the analysis of essay on the, demand and supply?
Does the essay, IAR identify a full range of options for following one of the three, meeting the identified project scope, including the status quo option? Are all of the options adequately developed with appropriately detailed cost estimates? Is the financial analysis of options clear and complete and does it conform to RPB conventions? Does the financial analysis include consideration of all of the life-cycle costs of the project? Has a sensitivity analysis been included in the analysis? Has a risk assessment been carried out and does it adequately evaluate all relevant areas of risk? Does the analysis consider all non-financial factors that have a bearing on the investment decision? Have meaningful conclusions been drawn which consider all aspects of the analysis? Does the recommended solution address the problem statement in the Statement of darden essay review, Requirements? Does the constitution, IAR clearly state the approvals that are being sought? Does the darden essay, IAR present the correct class of cost estimate for the type of approval being sought?
Has the client's point of view been adequately reflected in the submission? Does the IAR address potential environmental impacts and has a statement on environmental impact been included? Does the of the one of basic of a essay, IAR identify funding requirements, the source of funds, the Vote that the costs will be charged to darden essay as well as the essays on helen keller, expected project cash flow by year? Have all implications and issues related to the approval been identified and discussed? Does the IAR contain a well thought out implementation plan that will minimize client disruption? Is the implementation plan consistent with the NPMS ? Does the darden review, IAR conform to all policy requirements, strategies and RPB practices? Is the information, data and analysis relevant, reliable, unbiased and complete (no gaps)? Is the document well written and concise and does it contain a good flow of logic? Has the IAR been submitted in a timely fashion with adequate time for RIMB and, if applicable, RPIB to consider all options? Does the free on the bill, IAR include a well-written and darden essay review, concise Executive Summary that summarizes all key issues? Problem/Opportunity Definition Background 2.1 Project History 2.2 Building Condition 2.3 Tenant Considerations 2.4 Inventory Supply Real Estate Market Analysis Project Scope Identification Analysis of write a hook argumentative essay, Options 4.1 Options Considered 4.2 Financial Analysis Sensitivity Analysis 4.3 Analysis of Non-Financial Factors 4.4 Risk Assessment 4.5 Conclusions Strategic Impact Recommendation Approval Authorities and Funding Implementation Plan Project Team Signatures Appendices.
The purpose of the Executive Summary is to provide a brief overview of the most essential and decision-relevant information concerning the project. While the contents of this section will vary depending on the situation, the following elements of content should be considered when writing this section: Start with a clear statement of the proposal that is being recommended for approval. This includes a brief project description with a definition of the project scope, costs and timing. For space-based projects, identify the usable and rentable square meters. Identify the following: estimated project cost, including any risk allowance, the darden review, type of approvals that are being sought (preliminary project approval, effective project approval, or lease project approval), any associated spending authorities, whether this constitutes a revised approval, and essay, the appropriate delegated authority required for project approval. Darden Review! The estimated total project cost should include only items funded or controlled by PSPC . GST should be included and then shown separately. IAR s requesting PPA should also identify the amount of on helen, spending authority (based on substantive cost estimates) requested to fund activities until EPA . Identify the source of funding for PSPC costs related to darden review this project. Is funding available at the regional level or will funds be requested through banking day? What vote will the costs be charged to? Is the funding considered to fall under Capital or Operating?
Identify the client costs related to the project, indicating that the client agrees with these costs and has the required funding to pay for them. These client costs should not be included as part of the which of the one of basic parts of a persuasive, project costs for which approval is being sought. Identify any expenditures undertaken by PSPC on behalf of the client for which PSPC will be reimbursed. For capital projects, state whether or not the project has been included in the National Portfolio Plan, whether funding has been allocated, and if so, in what amount. Provide projections of cash flow by year in budget year (year of darden essay review, disbursement) dollars. GST should be shown separately. State the which of the is not one of the three parts of a, class of cost estimate.
For IAR s seeking effective project approval, it must be stated that substantive cost estimates have been provided. Identify and provide details of any previous approvals, decisions, or agreements of relevance to this project. This would include previous RPIB , RIMB or Treasury Board approvals, Cabinet or Ministerial decisions and interdepartmental agreements, such as Memorandums of Agreement or Memorandums of Understanding. Identify any related recent or ongoing projects, especially those in the same building. Include a summary of the rationale for undertaking this project. Darden Review! This should clearly define what factors or issues are driving the following is not persuasive, initiation of the darden essay review, project and write sentence for an argumentative essay, how the darden essay, project addresses these issues. A statement may be included regarding the impact of not proceeding with this project. Identify the options that were analyzed.
Illustrate the results of the financial analysis in the form of a table showing the keller, PVCOA and the risk-adjusted PVCOA (if calculated) for each option. Essay! Clearly state and summarize the rationale for selecting the recommended option, identifying the do i, financial, non-financial and risk factors that contribute to making this the best value approach. For space-based projects, identify the darden review, projected utilization rate for the tenant (m 2 u/FTE ) following the implementation of the project, as well as the Accommodation Savings Tracking (AST) number. State whether or not the project will generate savings. Summarize client liaison activities throughout the development of the project while demonstrating some alignment with the recommended option. Identify any client concerns related to the project. Identify any special issues that need to be brought to the attention of RIMB /RPIB . These issues may pertain to essays risk management, potential political considerations, timing, legal issues, client issues, issues regarding the review, department's sustainable development targets, heritage conservation considerations or areas of public sensitivity with respect to the project. Write in constitution and articles, a simple, direct style, avoiding long passages. Try to essay review limit the basic parts persuasive, section to a maximum of two pages, using a point form approach wherever possible. Darden! The Executive Summary should summarize the most decision-relevant information found in the IAR , avoiding background information or details. Only state in the Executive Summary what is fully supported in the body of the Investment Analysis Report.
On no account should the Executive Summary contain new information. Write the Executive Summary after the essay on why do i financially, rest of the document is complete. The purpose of this section of the IAR is to briefly identify the problems or issues driving the IAR . Describe the key issues that the proposed project is addressing. Projects may be launched for essay review, a number of reasons, such as: to meet a client requirement; to maintain or improve an asset; or to constitution and articles of confederation take advantage of an opportunity. Make reference to any portfolio planning considerations that may be driving the requirement for the project. Darden Essay! This section should clearly define what factors or issues drove the how to a hook for an, initiation of the essay review, project. The content of this section should closely resemble the Problem/Opportunity Definition section of the NPMS Statement of Requirements. If applicable, describe any previous approvals, decisions, or agreements that drove the initiation of the project.
This would include previous RPIB and RIMB decisions or Treasury Board approvals, Cabinet or Ministerial decisions and constitution, interdepartmental agreements. Identify and describe any special involvement of another department, for example, the darden essay review, IAR is on behalf of another department; the IAR deals with a joint undertaking; the how to write a hook sentence argumentative, initiative will be funded in darden review, part by the client department. This section should give the reader a clear understanding of why the project is being proposed and should include a short description of why the project exists. However, care should be taken not to burden the essay on why need, reader with details. This section should be kept very short. It identifies the key problems or issues that are driving the project and provides an introduction to the rest of the document. Information included in the NPMS Statement of Requirements can be used to write this section of the darden, IAR . Critical Essay Of The Of An! The problem/opportunity definition included in Section I of the SoR may be sufficient for the content of darden essay, this section. The purpose of this section is to provide the reader with the how to write a hook for an argumentative essay, necessary background to fully understand the investment situation. This section generally consists of the darden, following: a project history, building condition, tenant considerations, inventory supply and constitution, real estate market analysis.
The contents of this section may vary depending on the actual situation. Essay Review! Not all of the sub-section topics suggested below will apply to every project and the writer should feel free to omit any sub-section that is not relevant. The writer may also wish to change the order of the topics if this provides an improved flow of logic and greater clarity for the situation that is being described. Provide a short description of the relevant history of the project. On Helen! Describe any relationship to other projects or larger programs. If applicable, describe any previous approvals or decisions, that are related to the project. This would include previous RPIB and RIMB decisions or Treasury Board approvals, and Cabinet or Ministerial decisions. Essay Review! It is a requirement that IAR s demonstrate that the essays on helen keller, development and implementation of the project are compliant with the NPMS . Include a statement indicating and describing this compliance. Describe the essay review, progress in completing other NPMS deliverables. Identify NPMS control points and free essay on the, deliverables that have been completed and provide the names and dates of persons signing off on these documents. Darden! A NPMS compliance checklist, available on the NPMS Web site, may be used to essay demonstrate compliance.
This sub-section will generally be most relevant for essay, asset-based projects. Space-based projects that make use of an existing leased or owned asset should also include information on building condition for on why need financially, that asset. Provide a brief description of the building. It is generally appropriate to provide the details of the building description in an appendix with only a general overview and the most significant points included in darden, the text of the IAR . Elements of the building description may include: the age, area, location and sentence for an, other main characteristics of the building; the nature of essay, any recent renovations that have been undertaken; detailed information regarding those features of the building of specific relevance to the project being proposed; building environmental performance assessment; whether this is a heritage building and whether there are any heritage considerations related to this project; description of the strategic value of the on helen, building; and review, whether the building is being managed by an Alternative Forms of Delivery (AFD) contractor and any implications this may have for constitution, the project. Identify any future plans pertaining to the use of the building. This may include information on the remaining useful life of the building or how long PSPC may be planning to keep the building. Include a statement as to the overall condition of the building and darden, its main building systems, including any limitations it may have. On Helen! Identify the building's Facility Condition Index (FCI), if it is available. Darden Essay! Identify upcoming requirements for the building, omitting those associated with the current project.
This information can be summarized from the which of the following is not the three basic essay, Asset Management Plan or the Building Condition Report. Darden Essay Review! Briefly discuss the operational, financial, environmental and functional performance of the building and keller, whether the performance targets for the building are being met. This information can be summarized from the Asset Management Plan. For asset-based projects, discuss any building-related problems or issues that may be driving this project. Identify the impact that these problems or issues are having on the operation of the building. For asset-based projects, this sub-section addresses the impact of the project on PSPC 's tenants.
For space-based projects, this sub-section provides background information on the tenants and the nature of their programs. This section should not include tenant space requirements; this is essay review addressed in detail in Section 3, Project Requirements. Identify the impact that the essay on why, identified problems or issues are having on PSPC 's tenants. Are tenant operations currently being disrupted because of these issues? Identify the likely impacts of the project on the tenants such as additional tenant costs, disruption or required relocation. What are the key client concerns related to the project?
Describe the client liaison activities undertaken throughout the development of the project and how client concerns are being dealt with. In situations involving more than one client, the effective co-ordination of the Client Consultancy group should be demonstrated. 2.4 Inventory Supply Real Estate Market Analysis. This sub-section provides information on the availability of accommodation space within the existing government inventory, as well as in the local real estate market. Essay Review! This section is not required for asset-based IAR s for which the size or scale of the project precludes consideration of replacing the building as an option.
Identify the availability of any under-utilized government facilities and the suitability of these facilities in comparison to client demand. In identifying under-utilized facilities, consider the entire federal inventory, including PSPC custodial facilities, facilities of and articles essay, other government departments, and leased facilities. Summarize the relevant data that has been collected on the local commercial real estate market. Market information can be obtained from a market survey report (MSR) or from a market analysis report (MAR). A MSR is review usually commissioned to collect more general market data for keller, the development of an IAR , while a MAR is building specific and is used to determine the appropriateness of proposed rental rates. A MAR is typically required for an IAR seeking LPA in order to determine the applicable market rental rates, if there is no other reliable source for these rates. Essay Review! Although each IAR requires market data, a separately commissioned report may not be necessary if reliable information is do i need ne available from essay other sources (e.g., another relevant MSR or MAR). Of The Story Of An Hour! In summarizing the results of a market report, the analyst should note who carried out the report and when, the classifications of essay, comparable buildings surveyed (A, B, or C class), vacancy rates (emphasizing properties having the required type and size of space), the effective rental rates for suitable accommodation and trends in the local commercial real estate market. It may also be useful to identify the number of a brief essay on why need, properties within the relevant geographical boundaries that could potentially meet the identified requirement.
Describe the conclusions that have been reached based on the analysis of demand and darden essay, supply as provided in the sections above. The conclusions should address the following questions: Is there likely to be suitable accommodation space within the existing government inventory? What is the and articles of confederation, vacancy rate and availability of suitable space in the local commercial real estate market? Are there any existing or proposed developments that could meet the demand for space? What are the anticipated effective rental rates for suitable accommodation (i.e., rental rates adjusted for essay, inducements)?
Tips on writing the background section: There will likely be a considerable amount of essay need financially ne, detailed information associated with this section of the IAR . As much as possible, the analyst should present numeric information in darden, the form of essay of the story of an, tables, charts or appendices. The NPMS Feasibility Report may include background information on the project that can be summarized in this section. Supporting details that are found in the Feasibility Report do not need to be replicated in the IAR . Appendices associated with this section may include a Community Profile and a chronology of events. The purpose of this section is to fully describe the key requirements of the project.
For an asset-based project, this will involve the technical requirements related to building repair or modification, or system or component replacement. For a space-based project, this will involve the details of client space requirements. A Project Charter (PC) and Project Plan (PP) will likely have been prepared and approved as deliverables in the NPMS process. Much of the information required to prepare this section of the IAR can come from the PC and PP. The PC and PP should be referred to review in this section of the IAR , and the key content summarized. Supporting details that are found in the PC and PP do not need to be replicated in the IAR . For asset-based projects, identify the requirements for the proposed projects. These will generally be technical requirements related to for an essay building components and darden review, systems that will be replaced, upgraded or added to which is not one of the three basic persuasive the building. It may also be useful to discuss the level of urgency related to the requirements, if this has not already been addressed.
Include a statement concerning whether or not the project requirement was identified in the Building Condition Report, Asset Management Plan, or the Building Management Plan. For space-based projects, identify the client(s) requiring the darden review, space and present their requirements in terms of the of confederation, following: the amount of darden review, space required, the on helen keller, type of space required, the location where the space is required, the essay review, date by which the space is required and for how long the space is required. Space-based IAR s must include the PSPC Office Accommodation Allocation Limits form and must show that PSPC fit-up standards are being adhered to. Identify the number of employees and/or full-time equivalent (FTE s) as validated by the client. Based on the number of FTE s, calculate the space entitlement as per the PSPC Office Accommodation Framework (OAF), expressing this in terms of usable square metres of space (m 2 u) and then converting this to rentable square metres of space (m 2 r). Also show the ratio of usable area to constitution of confederation employment (m 2 u / FTE ). A sample of an OAF space entitlement calculation is attached as Appendix B. Attach the OAF calculation as an appendix to the IAR . Confirm that the requirement meets the darden review, PSPC fit-up standards and identify any fit-up exemptions. Include the Fit-up Compliance Monitoring Form and, if necessary, the essays, List of Non-compliant Items and Approvals as an appendix to the IAR . The required forms are available through the The Government of review, Canada Workplace 2.0 Fit-up Standards.
Identify the geographical boundaries required by the client. Include the rationale for the geographical boundaries, particularly if they are considered to be restrictive. Also, identify if there is any need to be collocated, either with other groups within the same department or other departments. Identify the clients' parking requirements. PSPC will lease and pay for write essay, parking spaces that are required by clients for operational purposes. Darden Review! Additional parking requested by the client that is beyond their operational requirements, is paid for essay on the of rights, by the client department. Review! Identify any special considerations that relate to either the write argumentative, client's requirements or the nature of the assets. Examples of this may include a client's requirements for a specific location or type of location, the darden, enhanced security requirements of a highly sensitive department or the special requirements posed by a heritage building.
Summary information should be provided as to why these special requirements exist. Develop a forecast of all relevant client demand in this location. This forecast should be as realistic as possible and should not be based on expected efficiencies or speculative developments, which may not occur. Identify the factors that are likely to influence demand in the future. What is the likelihood of these factors occurring and what impact would they have on client requirements? The analyst should be aware of changes to funding levels, program requirements and activities of client departments and be able to describe whether these changes will serve to increase or decrease demand for accommodation in this location. Describe any occupancy commitments that may have been made by the client. The analyst should identify the and articles, term of this commitment and discuss what is likely to darden essay review happen after the commitment expires. Identify any impact on which of the following basic parts of a persuasive, the client's national space envelope such as an adjustment to the space envelope when the space entitlement warrants a reduction.
Identify whether the client is darden essay review reimbursing PSPC for critical essay of the of an hour, any of the review, expenditures. Identify and analyze potential future demand from other federal government departments that is relevant to this project. There may be much detailed information associated with this section of the IAR . As much as possible, the of rights, analyst should present numeric information in the form of tables and/or appendices. Appendix A, Step 1, describes the process of defining project requirements. Fit-Up Standards Technical Reference Manual. 4. Essay Review! Identification and free, Analysis of Options. The purpose of this section of the IAR is to darden review identify and analyze all feasible, practical options available to PSPC for meeting the identified project requirements.
This section generally consists of the following: the identification of options; the financial analysis; the analysis of non-financial factors; and a risk and sensitivity analysis. While the contents of how to write argumentative essay, this section will vary depending on the situation, the following elements of content should be considered when writing this section. A Feasibility Report will likely have been prepared and approved in essay review, advance of the IAR as part of the NPMS process. The Feasibility Report is intended to document relevant non-financial factors, identify feasible options and provide indicative costs estimates and schedules for use in the analysis of a hook sentence essay, options. Rather than replicating all of this information in darden essay review, the sections below, the Feasibility Report can be simply referred to which following one of basic and the key content summarized.
Identify and describe all reasonable options for satisfying the project requirements. Essay! At this stage, it is preferable to identify a greater number of options and then rule them out, rather than focusing too early on only a very limited number of options. Financially Ne! Identify those options, which are to be carried forward for darden essay, in-depth analysis, and following is not the three parts essay, those options which are clearly not practical and which will be eliminated from darden essay further consideration. Briefly state why the on the of rights, eliminated options are not being considered for further analysis. Darden! It should be noted that the status quo should be considered as an how to write a hook sentence for an argumentative essay, option, if there is a feasible status quo. The status quo should form part of the in-depth analysis, as it is usually the fallback position if the recommended project is not approved. Darden Essay! It is important to ensure that the critical of the story hour, status quo is fully analyzed and the consequences of maintaining the status quo are clearly identified. In preparing this section, the analyst should ensure that all reasonable options for providing accommodation have been explored. For larger projects, it is essay generally appropriate to include the evaluation of keller, a public-private partnership (P3) option as part of the analysis. Darden Review! The inclusion of a P3 option as part of the on helen keller, analysis was discussed previously in Section 2.4 of this Guide. The main options that will be analyzed need to be fully developed and includes the preparation of cost estimates for construction, leasing, fit up or refit and operating and life cycle costs.
The main features of each option should be summarized in text or tabular form with supporting details in an appendix. It is important to identify the key assumptions made and the level of risk associated with the estimates provided. Darden Essay Review! Ensure that the requirements of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act are addressed and that the results of the Environmental Assessment, including any required remediation and monitoring measures, are included in the analysis. Ensure that the options reflect the requirements of constitution and articles of confederation essay, PSPC 's Sustainable Development Strategy. Darden! More detailed information on the identification of options can be found in constitution essay, Appendix A on the Investment Analysis Process, including Step 2, Generate Options, and Step 3, Narrow the Options. Much of the content of this section was likely included in the Feasibility Report, in which case it can simply be referenced and briefly summarized.
However, the analyst should be alert to the fact that the situation can change between the time the Feasibility Report is written and when the IAR is prepared and new information and options may have emerged. 4.2 Financial Analysis Sensitivity Analysis. The financial analysis should consider the full costs to the federal government for each option. The quality of the darden, financial analysis is only as good as the assumptions and input values on which following the three basic parts persuasive essay, which it is based. It is the essay, analyst's responsibility to ensure that all relevant costs are included in the analysis and that all assumptions and input values are realistic and reflect the best available information.
Special attention should be paid to those costs, which differ from critical essay one option to review another. The financial analysis should include client-funded items, whether capital or operating. The cost of essay on why do i, internal PSPC fees should also be included and are based on 1.8 times the darden review, hourly billable rate. Essays! A space/time diagram is darden essay review useful to illustrate space use over time for the various options being considered. The use of a space/time diagram helps avoid logic errors in the analysis by ensuring that the analysis includes provision for accommodating all tenants over the entire investment horizon. If this diagram is used, it can be attached to the IAR as an appendix and referred to in the text. The results of the on why need ne, financial analysis should be presented, typically in table form showing the PVCOA , NPV IRR for each option. Major assumptions should be mentioned in the text of the IAR , while a full description of all assumptions and darden review, results should be included in an appendix. RPB has developed a risk-based investment analysis approach, as described in Section 2.4 of this Guide.
The general approach is to calculate the risk-neutral PVCOA (no provision for risk) as has traditionally been done using PSPC 's REFIT program and critical story hour, then adding a risk adjustment for each option in order to produce a risk-adjusted PVCOA . Review! The financial results should present both the risk-neutral PVCOA and the risk-adjusted PVCOA . This section should address the key financial risks using a sensitivity analysis to for an essay address the uncertainty of darden essay review, various assumptions. The sensitivity analysis should focus on key areas of uncertainty such as the level of demand, residual values and a brief essay need financially ne, major cost areas (capital outlay risks, inflation / escalator risks, project timing risks including the possible increase in rent of a short term lease extension, rental market risks, and cyclical recapitalization risks). Essay Review! Risks associated with key economic factors should be referred to where applicable, for instance: inflation, interest rates and real estate market conditions. It should be noted that the use of the essay do i, risk-adjusted investment analysis approach might offset or reduce the requirement to undertake a sensitivity analysis. Darden Essay! Present and discuss the results of the financial analysis and sensitivity analysis. Which is the most financially viable (least cost) option under base-case assumptions? Do variations to key assumptions cause a different option to become the most financially viable? How do the results using the risk-adjusted PVCOA compare with the results using the risk-neutral PVCOA ? What conclusions can be reached based on the financial analysis? Additional information on which following one of basic persuasive essay, carrying out the financial analysis is available in Appendix A, The Investment Analysis Process, Step 4, Undertake Financial Analysis. As well, the financial analysis process and the use of REFIT are fully described in a separate guide.
4.3 Analysis of Non-Financial Factors. The analysis of non-financial factors is intended to ensure that all qualitative factors that contribute to providing value to the federal government are taken into account in the investment analysis. Identify all non-financial factors, which may have a bearing on the selection of the preferred option. While the relevant factors to consider will be different for each investment situation, some of the factors that may be considered include: How well each option satisfies the identified project requirements. If there are any locational or utilization advantages for the client associated with certain options.
How well each option satisfies strategic objectives, as identified in the Way Forward Initiative, National Investment Strategy, National Portfolio Plan, Community-Based Investment Strategy or Strategic Action Plan (SAP). The NIS requires consideration of the following: any major impact on local economic and market conditions which might influence future investment decisions impact on the diversity or balance of the inventory, either in terms of tenure mix or date of lease expiry marketability to other clients The extent to which each option is darden essay responsive to identified timing requirements Differences between the of the of an, options with respect to health, safety, accessibility, environmental or heritage consideration, contribution to darden essay the community and federal presence The degree to which the option supports heritage preservation and write for an argumentative essay, the Good Neighbour Policy The extent to which each option supports the goals and darden essay review, objectives of the PSPC Sustainable Development Strategy. A Hook Sentence For An Essay! Identify any major differences between the options in terms of their ability to meet SDS objectives. Focus on decisions that are implicit in the approval of the IAR . Darden Essay Review! For example, for PPA the IAR could distinguish between options that have brown-field vs. green-field development, urban vs. suburban locations. Refer to PSPC 's Sustainable Development Strategy 2003, Annex 3, Targets 1.1.1 to hour 1.1.5 and Sustainable Development Strategy 2007 - 2009, Section 3, Sustainable Development Targets. In addition, NPMS has developed a Sustainable Project Delivery and Environmental Management Procedure, which include an darden essay review, appendix listing all the SDS commitments relevant to project delivery.
Appendix C of this IAR guide provides additional material on how sustainable development should be addressed in a project. The use of an evaluation matrix can help to ensure that all feasible options are considered in an organized, consistent and methodical manner, and are evaluated against all relevant non-financial factors. Of The The Three Parts Of A Essay! This will help the essay review, analyst in formulating a justifiable recommendation that reflects all important criteria. A complete description of a qualitative analysis using an essays, evaluation matrix can be found in Appendix A, The Investment Analysis Process, Step 5 - Undertake Analysis of essay review, Non-Financial Factors. This table measures the a brief essay on why do i financially ne, feasibility of options by assigning a score to essay review each option with regards to non-financial factors. And Articles Essay! A total score is calculated for each option, using the sum of its scores relating to each non financial factor given. In RPB 's Risk Management Manual, risk is defined as the review, uncertainty that surrounds future events and outcomes. It is the expression of the likelihood and impact of an event with the potential to influence the achievement of the organization's objectives. The purpose of this section of the IAR is to identify and analyze the essays keller, key risk factors associated with each of the options being considered in order that the relative riskiness of essay review, each option can be determined. The first step is to identify the how to sentence, risk factors that could be relevant for each of the darden review, options being analyzed.
In this regard, the Risk Management Plan should already have been developed as part of the NPMS Project Plan. As well, a Risk Profile should be developed as part of the Analysis Phase of the NPMS . A Risk Profile is defined in the RPB Risk Management Manual as an outline of the critical hour, risks to which a project is exposed. It assists staff in essay, identifying problems before they occur and on helen keller, determining how they might affect the success of a project. Darden Review! While the relevant risk factors will be different for on helen keller, each investment situation, some risk factors that may be considered include: Risk that the project may not fully rectify an identified problem Risk of user needs not being met Risk of changing requirements Risk that forecast demand fails to develop Risk of not meeting timing requirements Risk of cost overruns Risk of future performance being impaired Risk of environmental degradation Once the risk factors have been identified, it is necessary to evaluate the relative level of risk associated with each of the options. While various evaluation methods may be used for this, a suggested approach is provided in Appendix A, The Investment Analysis Process, Step 6 - Undertake Risk Assessment. This approach uses an evaluation matrix to determine the relative levels of risk (e.g., low, medium, high) for each of the options being evaluated. The evaluation should help the analyst determine the answers to the following questions: What types and what level of risk are associated with each option? How does each option rank in terms of risk? Which option has the highest risk factor? How controllable are the key risks for each option? Generally, an essay, option that carries risks that can be mitigated is preferable to an option that carries risks that cannot be mitigated.
Describe the results of the risk assessment and the conclusions that were reached. How To Write A Hook Sentence For An Essay! Which option carries the lowest level of darden essay, risk? Do any of the options carry an unacceptably high level of risk? The risk assessment carried out in constitution and articles essay, this section of the IAR may be reduced in scope if the darden essay review, risk-adjusted investment analysis approach was used. If so, the how to write sentence for an, financial analysis may have quantified the risk assessment for each option as part of calculating the review, risk-adjusted PVCOA . However, the analyst should be aware that not all areas of risk may be captured in essays on helen, the risk-adjusted PVCOA . Thus, a qualitative statement on essay review, the relative risk factor associated with the option(s) should still be included in this section. Particular attention should be given to risks that may not have been captured as part of the risk-adjusted PVCOA . The risk assessment process is described in more detail in Appendix A, The Investment Analysis Process, Step 6 - Undertake Risk Assessment. A more detailed description of the treatment of risk is and articles of confederation essay provided in the RPB Risk Management Manual. The intent of this sub-section is to combine the results of all of the analyses that were undertaken in order to determine which option provides the overall best value to darden essay review the federal government.
Consider the a brief essay on why need ne, results of the financial analysis, the assessment of non-financial factors and risk assessment together. What overall conclusions can be reached concerning the investment decision? Identify the preferred option in consideration of all relevant factors. Review! There should be a clear rationale in support of the essay, preferred option. The analyst should include a concise statement as to why the preferred option is better than the other options that are available. The analyst should also identify any option that is a close second choice. Tips on writing sections 4.1 to 4.5. The results of the review, financial, non-financial and constitution and articles essay, sensitivity analyses should be presented in tables, rather than in text, with observations and darden, conclusions discussed in the text. Details of the input assumptions used and the calculations carried out are placed in appendices. It may be desirable to obtain guidance on a brief essay need financially ne, this section from your COE . Due to darden essay review the detailed nature of much of the information in this section, extensive use should be made of appendices.
Appendices connected with this section may include a description of options, the time/space diagram, the assumptions and printouts from the financial analysis and details of the analysis of non-financial factors. More detailed information on the processes included in this section can be found in Appendix A, The Investment Analysis Process. Investment Analysis Policy PSPC Sustainable Development Strategy RPB Risk Management Manual. The primary purpose of this section is to identify the strategic value of proceeding with the project. This section also is intended to illustrate that the development of the project has been carried out in critical essay of the of an hour, a manner that is consistent with departmental policies and strategies. As noted above, one of the purposes of this section is to darden illustrate that the development of the write sentence essay, project has been carried out in a manner that is consistent with departmental policies and essay, strategies. An effective way in which to do this is to the three parts persuasive essay begin the section with a checklist of strategic and policy compliance. This should not be a standard checklist that is applied to all projects. Rather, the darden, checklist should only include those strategies and policies that are directly relevant to of the is not parts of a persuasive essay the project and those which the essay, project team have given specific consideration to as a part of constitution and articles, planning the project. Essay Review! While the contents of the checklist may vary, the following is an example of the constitution and articles of confederation essay, type of checklist that may be used: This checklist may be used to check which policies and strategies a given project complies or does not comply with.
A list of policies and strategies appears on the left, and there are columns to check yes or no, whether or not the project in question complies with a given policy or strategy. Strategic considerations are critical factors in the investment decision. Essay! This section defines the interrelationship between the relevant departmental strategies and the preferred option that is being put forward. It is not necessary to write a hook argumentative describe details of departmental strategies. Rather, focus on the impact that the strategy will have on the project being considered. Care should be taken not to burden the reader with details. National Investment Strategy, Community Based Investment Strategy and Strategic Action Plan.
National Portfolio Management Plan and National Portfolio Plan Good Neighbour Policy Sustainable Development Strategy NPMS Web Site. This section summarizes the investment proposal that is being recommended and the implications of essay, this recommendation. While the contents of this section will vary depending on what is being proposed, the how to write a hook sentence argumentative, following elements of content should be considered when writing this section: Start with a clear and detailed statement of the proposal that is being recommended for approval. Identify the total estimated project cost (or LPA amount), both with and without GST and the type of approval that is being sought (preliminary project approval, effective project approval, or lease project approval), any associated spending authorities, whether this constitutes a revised approval and lastly, the appropriate delegated authority required for project approval.
IAR s requesting PPA should identify the amount of spending authority (based on essay, substantive cost estimates) requested to which of the following the three basic essay fund activities until EPA . Review! The project cost may include a risk allowance, where this has been calculated. The risk allowance provides for unforeseen events for which other mitigation measures are not available. It should be noted that the risk allowance is not necessarily the same as the how to write, risk adjustment calculated as part of the risk-adjusted investment analysis methodology. The calculation of the risk allowance is dealt with in essay review, the RPB Risk Management Manual. The estimated total project cost should include only those items funded or controlled by PSPC . Note that direct PSPC costs (fees billable to projects) should be listed at essays keller 1.8 x hourly billable rate in essay review, both the options analysis and for the approval amount. For submissions seeking effective project approval, it must be stated that substantive cost estimates have been provided.
For IAR s seeking lease project approval (LPA), the expected lease contract authority (LCA) amount should be identified. Keller! The LCA amount is the total amount that will be paid to the landlord over the term of the lease (not discounted to their present value), including fit-up, OM and taxes if these are passed through the landlord, expressed in budget year (year of disbursement) dollars. Provide projections of cash flow by year in budget year (year of essay review, disbursement) dollars (GST shown separately). Identify the client costs related to constitution essay the project, indicating that the client agrees with these costs and has the required funding to pay for them. These client costs should not be included as part of the project costs for which approval is being sought. Identify any expenditures undertaken by PSPC on behalf of the client for which PSPC will be reimbursed. Clearly define the scope and timing objectives of the project. For space-based projects, include usable and rentable square metres of space.
For space-based projects, identify the projected utilization rate for the tenant (m 2 u/FTE ) following the implementation of the project, as well as the Accommodation Savings Tracking (AST) number. Darden Essay! State whether or not the project will generate savings. Comment on the urgency of the project, and provide the results of any priority ranking of the project. Constitution Essay! This could include a statement regarding the impact of not proceeding with the project. Indicate whether or not the client agrees with the proposed approach, and the implications if the client does not agree. Describe any special provisions that will be required during any period of renovation. This may include temporary accommodation for clients, moves or shuffling of space or other client inconveniences.
Describe how any inconveniences will be minimized. If the project involves leased accommodation, the method of acquiring the space should be identified (either tender call or direct negotiation). In the case of the direct renegotiation of an existing lease, it is necessary that the final recommendation address the six requirements contained in the RPB Policy on Sole Source Renegotiation of Existing Leases. A statement to this effect should be made in this section of the IAR . It is recommended that a schedule for negotiations be prepared to demonstrate the time required to implement alternative solutions if negotiations are unsuccessful. Any long-term accommodation strategy related to the investment should be identified. For example, leasing space may be recommended until the planned construction of a new federal building at essay some point in the future. Identify any linkage with other related projects, especially those in the same building. Ensure that any related projects are, in fact, separate projects, and a brief on why do i need financially, do not constitute project splitting.
Identify all issues that should be brought to the attention of RPIB or RIMB . This should include any issue affecting the investment decision or the implementation of the darden, project. These issues may pertain to critical of the story areas of risk that must be managed, potential political considerations, timing considerations, legal issues or areas of public sensitivity with respect to the project. Include a statement on the environmental impact of the essay review, project. State the level of LEED standard that the project is required to meet as per the SDS. And Articles! State whether the project is expected to meet this required target and, if not, explain why. The IAR should identify any other specific SDS targets addressed by darden review the project. Constitution And Articles! For projects seeking EPA , outline how the construction process will conform to SDS requirements. Ensure that the project budget and life cycle financial analysis reflects the SDS aspects of the project (i.e., any increases in essay, capital costs and decreases in operating costs). (See Appendix C - Sustainable Project Delivery for more information). If required, include a project specific sustainable development strategy and/or material addressing the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) as an appendix. This material could include a CEAA checklist and/or identification of significant impacts and how these impacts are to be mitigated and monitored.
If required, include a Strategic Environmental Assessment in the appendix. Identify any communication requirements associated with this project. If this is expected to draw public interest, or require public consultation under provisions of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, briefly describe an appropriate communication strategy, and if available, include the Communication Strategy in an appendix. Be focused in your observations. The details have already been provided in previous sections, and do not need to be restated. This section deals with the recommendations that flow from your analysis. Ensure that there has been adequate input and agreement from all parties. In particular, cost estimates and schedules may require Project Review Advisory Committee (PRAC) approval or similar technical peer review done through Project Management. Sentence Argumentative Essay! Rental rates/market values should be approved by the leasing agent or Chief Appraiser. Policy on Sole Source Renegotiation of Existing Leases Lease Project Approval Policy. To identify the funding requirement, source of funding and the type and essay, level of approval authority required.
Identify the Delegated Approval Authority (e.g. RDG , ADM , Minister, TB ). Identify the source of funding. State whether funding is available at the regional level or will be requested through Banking Day. Identify what vote(s) the costs will be charged to and whether Capital and/or Operating funds are involved. For capital projects, state whether or not the project has been included in the National Portfolio Plan, whether funding has been allocated, and if so, in what amount. For PPA , indicate the amount of constitution, spending authority (substantive estimate) that is being sought for project definition to reach EPA . This section contains an implementation plan that describes all major steps that must be taken to successfully implement the project once approvals have been granted.
The implementation plan includes a project schedule and a risk management plan. An effective implementation strategy reinforces accountability, identifies benchmarks of performance, and helps reduce the review, risk of the project not performing to one of the three parts persuasive expectations. Describe the project implementation tasks and activities, including engineering surveys, planning studies and other documentation that are required to move a project forward. If this is a request for preliminary project approval, include a description of the tasks and schedule to bring the project to essay review EPA . Essays! Ensure that the implementation tasks are consistent with NPMS control points and deliverables. Provide a table showing key dates and darden, performance benchmarks for the project, including the anticipated completion date and occupancy date. Ensure that the schedule is realistic and allows sufficient time for required project approvals. A detailed project schedule should be included or attached as an appendix. In addition, the analyst should ensure that the schedule has been approved by Professional and Technical Services and, in the NCA , by the Project Review Advisory Committee (PRAC) for asset-based projects or by the Leasing Officer for space-based projects. The IAR must summarize the Risk Management Plan being developed for the project as per the Project Plan. The Risk Management Plan describes how project risk management will be structured and performed on the project. It structures the overall risk management activities for the project and covers who will be accountable for the process and how mitigation results will be tracked.
The Risk Management Plan should be developed in which of the basic of a essay, accordance with the RPB Risk Management Manual, and more specifically, the review, Risk Management Plan Template found in the NPMS Risk Management Procedure. The Risk Management Plan should be integrated in the NPMS deliverables, including a plan for risk mitigation that is part of the Revised Project Plan. The IAR should identify the key risks associated with the essay story of an, project and essay, summarize the mitigation measures to which of the is not one of basic parts persuasive essay effectively manage those risks. IAR s seeking PPA should specifically address risks associated with the project identification phase, the approval process, the timing required to take the project to EPA , as well as the risk mitigation measures that will be required to manage the risks that have been identified for darden review, the recommended option. IAR s seeking EPA should identify risks associated with the implementation of the project and essay of the of an, summarize how these risks will be managed. This should include the identification of the ongoing process that will be used to monitor and report on risk factors during the implementation of the project. The Project Leader is darden responsible for ensuring that risk mitigation measures are acted upon during the implementation of the project and essay of an hour, reporting on the outcome of unresolved risk issues. Identify contingency plans for meeting critical milestones in the delivery of the project. Real Property Branch Risk Management Policy Treasury Board Secretariat ARCHIVED - Integrated Risk Management Framework PSPC Integrated Risk Management (IRM) Policy, Nov.
2004 PSPC National Project Management System /Knowledge Area/ Risk RPB Risk Management Manual. Identify the Project Leader and the members of the Project Team. List the person who prepared the IAR , the review, person who supports the IAR (Project Mgr., Asset Mgr., Facility Mgr., etc.) and the person who recommends the essays on helen keller, IAR . The Project Leader and review, key members of the Project Team should sign the write a hook, IAR to darden indicate their concurrence. In some instances, sign-off by the client(s) might be appropriate as a benchmark for agreement. The appendices serve the purpose of providing detailed information of relevance to the project.
The use of appendices for critical essay, detailed information allows the main document to be shorter and more readable. Essay Review! All appendices should contain decision-relevant information. Unnecessary appendices should not be included just because the information is available. Write Essay! All appendices should be referred to in the text. The contents of the appendices will vary depending on the situation. The following are some of the appendices that may be included with an IAR : “Fit-up Compliance Monitoring Form” and the “List of Non-Compliant Items Approvals,” these forms are available on the intranet “Office Accommodation Allocation Limits” form Chronology of events (history of the project) NPMS Project Charter NPMS Feasibility Report NPMS Project Plan NPMS Compliance Checklist Risk Management Plan Community profile Market survey or summary of the market survey Summaries of building condition and building performance Description of options and relevant costs Time/space diagram List of assumptions from the essay review, financial analysis Analysis of constitution and articles, non-financial factors Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, Environmental Assessment Report Project Sustainable Development Strategy with targets (LEED , energy efficiency, GhG emissions reduction, water conservation, etc.) Project implementation schedule Detailed cost estimates for darden essay, the proposed project Communications Strategy. Appendix A: The Investment Analysis Process. Investment analysis is a generic approach to decision making, embracing a range of evaluative techniques that challenge the judgement and of the one of parts of a essay, analytical skills of the analyst. Investment analysis involves a series of logical, sequential steps that are closely linked.
The eight-step process, identified below, offers a simple framework within which an investment analysis can be organized. It is recommended that the analyst document the findings and conclusions that he or she has reached at the conclusion of each of the eight steps. This creates a file of material on the proposed project, and facilitates the darden essay, writing of the Investment Analysis Report. The Eight Steps of Investment Analysis. Define requirements Generate options Narrow the options Undertake financial analysis Undertake analysis of non-financial factors Undertake risk assessment Evaluate options Formulate recommendations. All projects start out with a need that must be met or a requirement that must be fulfilled. It is the which one of basic parts persuasive essay, duty of the analyst to essay review determine, in appropriate detail, what this project is calling for.
Therefore, the chief purpose of this step is to determine and essay on why ne, assess the darden review, scope and performance specifications of the project requirement. At this stage, it is imperative for the analyst to determine essential and essay bill of rights, basic facts that will have to be considered throughout the life of the project (project determinants) this will form the basis for a judgement about project success. Defining the project scope takes place at the Project Identification Stage of the NPMS as part of preparing the Project Charter and Preliminary Project Plan. The analyst usually takes the following actions during this step: Visit the review, relevant sites, whether they be existing premises, or proposed sites (if already identified) Hold discussions with the client or user groups Gauge the on helen, role, influence and expectations of stakeholders and hold preliminary discussions as required Develop the PSPC team that will review and assess objectives and requirements of the proposed project.
Consult relevant PSPC policies and documents, such as the CBIS , AMP , BCR , etc. Review all the relevant short, medium and long-term factors that may impinge on project success Document objectives and scope fully in the NPMS Statement of Requirements and Project Charter/Project Plan respectively. For example, a space-based project may include the amount of space required by the client, the type of space required and when and where it is required To the extent feasible, obtain client concurrence with objectives and scope. What are the relevant context and surrounding conditions (opportunities and constraints) in which this project is being undertaken? What are the objectives of essay review, this project or undertaking? How urgent is the requirement? What are the timing constraints? Have all codes, standards, and policies, which may be applicable, been determined? Who are the stakeholders and of the of an, what is essay their role and interest? Do they concur with the objectives and scope as defined?
Why or why not? What is the likely role of sentence for an, other departments or other levels of government in this project? Are there any longer term trends that will impact (positively or negatively) on the requirement for the facility under consideration? Now that the objectives and operational requirements of the review, project have been firmly defined (in Step 1), the analyst is called upon to develop the full range of options that might plausibly meet the constitution essay, project requirements. During this step, the analyst and the team assigned to this project explore all possible avenues and methods for meeting the darden review, identified objectives and requirements. The analyst also develops the essential facts about each of these options.
Generating the full list of options is done during the NPMS Project Identification Stage as part of preparing the Feasibility Report. The analyst usually takes a number of the following actions during this step: Hold a brainstorming session with members of the project team to identify a complete list of free bill, options that may be considered For space-based projects, check whether any buildings within the existing Crown inventory are potentially able to meet the objectives and requirements of the project Survey local real estate markets to determine whether any existing or proposed private sector buildings are able to meet the objectives and requirements of the project Consult with stakeholders about options they might be interested in and concerns that they may have Depending on the nature of the project, it may be necessary to consult with municipal and darden review, urban community officials about possible options and any concerns that they might have concerning the project Establish the basic facts and implications about each of the identified options without passing judgement. Have all plausible options for meeting the essays keller, objectives and requirements of essay, this project been identified? For larger space-based projects, consideration should be given to a hook for an argumentative essay the inclusion of a P3 option. What are the review, basic facts and determinants about each of these options?
At this point, the analyst has a complete list of critical of the hour, all available options for meeting the proposed project objectives and requirements and has completed an darden, informative description of each option. It is which of the following basic parts persuasive not justifiable to give all options an darden essay, in-depth treatment that PSPC requires in an investment analysis. Therefore, Step 3 involves screening these options to eliminate those options that clearly would not be a feasible or viable choice for meeting the requirement. Essays On Helen! This will reduce the number of options for darden essay review, which an and articles, in-depth analysis will be undertaken. It should be noted that the status quo option is commonly included among the options for in-depth analysis. Narrowing down the list of potentially viable options for in-depth analysis is done during the NPMS Project Identification Stage as part of preparing the Feasibility Report. The analyst usually takes a number of the darden review, following actions during this step: Review the objectives, requirements, context and conditions of the proposed project Develop a list of criteria or decision rules to be applied fairly and equally to which one of the three basic parts essay all options under consideration.
Consistency with portfolio objectives should be one of the criteria for screening the essay, options Apply the criteria to screen out those options that cannot reasonably meet objectives and requirements Document the selection of options meriting in-depth consideration through the preparation of the NPMS Feasibility Report. Were the options that were screened out clearly unfavourable? Is there any way that the discarded options could be screened in and what is the free on the, likelihood of darden essay review, these conditions occurring? (i.e., has an option been disregarded too quickly due to perceived problems that could be overcome?) Has the rationale for of the of an hour, selection of darden essay, options for in-depth analysis been documented? Step 4: Undertake Financial Analysis. Step 4 involves the determination of the degree of financial viability of the potentially viable options using discounted cash flow analysis. The measures of financial viability include net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and present value of the cost of accommodation (PVCOA). As well, RPB has developed a risk-based investment analysis approach that accounts for the relative risk of the various options through the calculation of a risk-adjusted PVCOA . The REFIT computer spreadsheet software is a brief on why do i used for the financial analysis of accommodation projects. The financial analysis process and the use of REFIT are fully described in a separate guide. The following is a summary of the main actions undertaken by the analyst during this step: In consultation with subject matter experts, determine and document all financial assumptions, project costs and the life-cycle costs of long-term asset ownership associated with each option.
Ensure that all recurrent and non-recurrent revenues and costs for darden review, the federal government (including client costs) are captured for all years of the which one of the three parts of a essay, investment horizon. Use REFIT to darden review calculate the DCF measures for each of the options: net present value, internal rate of return, and present value cost of essays, accommodation (PVCOA). Darden Essay! This first calculation of PVCOA should be risk-neutral (no provision for risk). Essays On Helen! Identify the probability and the impact for each of the risk factors that could impact each option. Input this information into the RPB risk model, which will calculate a risk adjustment of each option.
Adding the risk adjustment to darden the most likely PVCOA will produce risk-adjusted results. The risk adjustment is a dollar amount that is intended to represent the likely costs associated with the risk characteristics of a particular option. Conduct a quality control check to ensure that there has been the utmost consistency in the treatment of the options and that the results are reliable and credible. Conduct a sensitivity analysis to argumentative essay determine to what extent the financially more attractive option is sensitive to variations in key input variables. Essay Review! It should be noted that the use of the risk-adjusted investment analysis approach might offset or reduce the requirement to undertake a sensitivity analysis.
Interpret the results of the discounted cash flow analysis. Ensure the assumptions and the results of the financial analysis are fully documented. Have each of the options been treated consistently in terms of assumptions and input variables? How do these options rank in essay, terms of financial viability, both before adjusting for risk and after, using the risk-adjusted PVCOA ? Based on the sensitivity analysis, does a change in darden review, the assumptions result in a different option becoming the preferred option? How is PSPC to interpret the keller, results from the discounted cash flow analysis? Step 5: Undertake Analysis of Non-Financial Factors. In addition to darden review the financial perspective, the analyst is how to sentence argumentative called upon to address the qualitative non-financial issues relating to each of the essay review, options under consideration. Hour! Therefore, the purpose of essay, this step is to review and evaluate the free essay bill, qualitative factors surrounding an investment decision. Non-financial issues primarily relate to strategy, timing, health and safety, environmental impact, tenant/user effects (such as program impacts or locational advantages), and policy considerations (such as heritage or the essay, Good Neighbour Policy).
The analyst usually takes a number of the following actions during this step: Identify all of the following is not the three basic parts of a persuasive essay, non-financial factors that may have a bearing on essay, the selection of the preferred option. Relevant non-financial factors are those factors that differentiate the essays on helen, options under consideration. Undertake research as necessary to fully understand the review, implications of each of the identified factors. Systematically assess how each of the free essay on the, options performs with respect to darden each of these factors. The use of an evaluation matrix, described below, may be a useful approach in carrying out this assessment.
Document the results and overall conclusions of the analysis. What regulations, strategies, codes, policies and practices apply to this decision? Which non-financial factors have the greatest impact on the selection of the essay need financially, preferred option? What overall findings can be drawn from the essay review, qualitative analysis with respect to the preferred option or options? A Suggested Approach - Use of an Evaluation Matrix: The suggested approach for which one of the three basic parts of a persuasive essay, evaluating non-financial factors relative to the options under consideration is based on the development of an evaluation matrix, also known as a weighting and essay review, rating framework. While this approach is still subjective, a well-constructed evaluation matrix does provide strong assurance that investment options have been considered in a rational and complete manner. The evaluation matrix consists of a list of relevant factors, along with weightings that reflect their relative significance. For each factor, a rating is applied that indicates the likely performance of an individual option with respect to that one factor. Multiplying the established weight times the on the bill, score for each factor gives a weighted score. The sum of these weighted scores gives a non-financial evaluation score for in individual option.
The scores of the various options can then be compared with the preferred option (with respect to qualitative factors) being the option with the highest score. Criterion Weights: The criterion weight is a number that reflects the relative importance of a particular criterion. Each criterion is darden essay assigned a percentage weight, so that the weights add up to 100% for the full set of criteria. Of Confederation Essay! In assigning criterion weights, the analyst considers the identified criteria and determines which are primary criteria for the particular investment situation, and which are secondary criteria. The difference in the weights for the criteria should not be so large as to negate the importance of darden essay review, all but the top weighted criterion. Factor Rating Scales: In order to compare the a hook, options, a rating scale is essay used to transform qualitative observations into a numerical value. In this approach, each criterion has a scale of 0 (lowest) to 5 (highest).
A rating of 5 would indicate that the option is highly responsive with respect to the factor, and constitution and articles, the option enables objectives associated with the darden, factor to be met. A rating of constitution of confederation, 0 would indicate that the option does not provide any material benefit with respect to the factor. The analyst uses the highest applicable rating, based on a combination of analysis and professional judgement. Ratings are often substantiated by a statement of essay, supporting evidence. The evaluation framework can assist the analyst in making appropriate trade-offs between the benefits provided by different options, and arriving at financially ne a recommended approach, which provides the darden essay review, greatest overall utility. The following example illustrates the layout of an on helen, evaluation matrix. This table defines numerical levels of risk, and explains what a given level of risk represents in terms of severity of impact and likelihood of negative outcomes. The purpose of the risk assessment is to essay review analyse the key risk factors associated with each of the options being considered in order that the relative riskiness of each option can be determined. A suggested approach for undertaking this assessment is provided below. However, other methodologies may be employed. While the write, relevant risk factors will be different for each investment situation, some risk factors that may be considered include:
Risk that the project may not fully rectify an identified problem; Risk of user needs not being met; Risk of changing requirements; Risk that forecast demand fails to develop; Risk of not meeting timing requirements; Risk of cost overruns; Risk of future performance being impaired; Risk of environmental degradation. The analyst may take the following actions during this step: Identify all sources of risk associated with each option under consideration. Undertake a risk assessment for each element of essay, risk for write sentence argumentative, each option. The risk assessment is a product of the likelihood times the severity of the impact, as indicated below. High impact and high likelihood. High impact and medium likelihood, or. Medium impact and high likelihood.
Medium impact and medium likelihood. Low impact and high likelihood, or. High impact and low likelihood. Low impact and medium likelihood, or. Medium impact and low likelihood. Low impact and low likelihood. Evaluate the overall level of risk associated with each option.
This can be done using an evaluation matrix. The matrix identifies each risk element as a row in the matrix, and each option as a column. Each cell in the matrix can then be used to identify the likelihood and impact of the individual risk element impacting a particular option, and assigning a score to this risk. Darden Review! The intent is to determine the relative levels of risk among the options being evaluated. This table measures the feasibility of options by assigning a score to each option with regards to non-financial factors. A total score is calculated for each option, using the sum of its scores relating to each non financial factor given. Determine an appropriate risk response. What actions are necessary to avoid, reduce, transfer, shore or accept the risk associated with the project? For example, one risk response may be to critical essay of the of an hour choose an option with a lower level of risk, or an option that allows risk to be transferred to a private sector partner. A risk response also includes the development of mitigation measures and contingency plans. Risk response strategies can be developed using scenario analysis, which involves developing an appropriate course of review, action to be taken in the event of a particular unfavourable event or outcome occurring.
In many cases, the department must be prepared to how to write for an argumentative essay accept a certain level of inherent risk that goes with any project, and that cannot be mitigated. For this, it may be appropriate to budget a risk allowance for the project to reflect this residual risk. Prepare a risk management plan for the preferred option. This is usually prepared as part of the overall project implementation plan. The risk management plan should identify all actions to be taken during the project implementation phase to monitor and control risk.
Effective risk management also includes risk reporting to ensure that risk information is communicated to senior managers in the department, that corrective action is taken if required, and that the review, organizational learning occurs on the better management of risk. What types and what level of essay do i financially, risk is associated with each option? How does each option rank in terms of darden essay review, risk? Which option is the most risky and which is the story of an hour, least risky? How controllable are the key risks for each option? Generally, an essay, option that carries risks that can be mitigated is preferable to an option that carries risks that cannot be mitigated. What mitigation measures could be employed to minimize the level of risk for the preferred option? In this step, the analyst takes the findings of Steps 4, 5 and do i financially, 6 and draws conclusions concerning which is the preferred option for essay review, this investment decision. In selecting a preferred option among the write sentence for an argumentative, options under consideration, the analyst is challenged to demonstrate that financial, non-financial and risk considerations have been weighted appropriately, that all the darden, options have received due and which of the following one of the three basic, careful consideration, and essay, that reasons for one of of a persuasive, selecting one option over the others are clearly articulated. The analyst may take the following actions during this step: Addresses the financial, non-financial and risk considerations systematically in summary fashion.
Selects the preferred option. This is the option that provides the greatest overall value to the federal government once all relevant factors are considered. Provides the darden review, full rationale supporting the selection of the preferred option. In cases where there is a close second option, document the rationale supporting this option and of an hour, indicate under what conditions this option might be considered. Does the preferred option provide good value for money.
Do the benefits outweigh the costs? Does the preferred option excel by a clear margin? Is there a close second option? Once the preferred option has been identified, the darden essay, analyst puts forward the recommendations associated with supporting this option. A Brief Essay On Why Do I Ne! With this step, the preferred option becomes the darden review, selected option (by the analyst). The analyst usually takes the following actions during this step: Prepares the essays on helen keller, recommendations that represent the investment decision, including the appropriate approval authority to be sought. Prepares an Implementation Plan for the project. Proposes a project schedule, including the optimal date for project initiation and the completion date.
Identifies the source and availability of funding. Reviews briefly the involvement of the client and other parties and recommends the steps to be taken to essay review secure their role in the project. Following One Of The Three Of A Persuasive Essay! Indicates any urgencies with respect to project approval and initiation. Initiates the preparation of a Communications Plan, if required. Appendix B: Space Entitlement Based on darden, the Office Accommodation Framework. This table gives an a brief essay do i need ne, example of an Office Accommodation Framework space entitlement calculation. It lists various items that require an darden, allocation of of the the three parts persuasive essay, space, then for each item lists the darden essay review, number of full time employees, space required per employee, and on the of rights, total space required, relative to the item. The total space requirement is calculated at the bottom of the table. Appendix C: Sustainable Project Delivery. Sustainable development as an element of project delivery is darden essay review mandated principally under four Federal Government initiatives, Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA), 1999 Cabinet Directive on Environmental Assessment of keller, Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), An amendment to the Auditor General Act establishing the darden, Office of the Commissioner of the Environment and Sustainable Development, and Canada's commitments under the Kyoto Protocol.
Of these, the first two are focused on assessing the environmental impacts of a project or activity and identifying mitigation measures where required while the last two are more focused on establishing performance targets in support of a more sustainable society. An Investment Analysis Report will be influenced to a greater or lesser degree by each of these initiatives. The amount and type of on helen keller, information required in essay, IAR will be influenced by which of the following is not one of the three basic parts of a essay the nature of the project (new building, renovation or lease), the type of project (space or asset based project), and the stage of approval (PPA or EPA ). Should be Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) Space, rather than asset-based, IAR s will have the greater possibility of being significantly effected by the CEAA and the 1999 Cabinet Directive on Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. At the moment, CEAA requires Federal Departments and Agencies, including PSPC to conduct an Environmental Assessment (EA) for all projects, as defined under the Act for which there is a trigger. Under the Act and for the purposes of this discussion, a project is defined as an activity in relation to darden essay review a physical work, any proposed construction, operation, modification, decommissioning, abandonment or other undertaking in relation to that physical work.
A trigger can be described in general terms as meeting any one of four conditions: A Federal Authority (Department or Agency) is the proponent of the project or commits in some manner to having the project carried out in whole or in of the story, part; Makes or authorizes payments or provides a guarantee for a loan or any other form of financial assistance to the proponent for the purpose of enabling the project to be carried out in whole or in part; Sells, leases or otherwise disposes of darden essay, land or any interests in land, or transfers the administration and control of on the bill, those lands for the purpose of enabling the project to be carried out in whole or in darden review, part; or Issues a permit or license, grants an constitution essay, approval or takes any other action for the purpose of enabling the project to be carried out in whole or in part. Once it is established that the undertaking is a project and a trigger is operating, it must then be determined under which of the regulations of the Act the project falls. At the moment, a project that involves a new building or substantial modification to an existing building (changing its footprint or height by greater than 10%, or carrying out essay work with 100m of essays on helen, a surface body of water) will require an assessment. However, amendments to the CEAA will result in essay, most PSPC projects (with the exception of those project meeting either of the how to write essay, two criteria above), particularly those that relate to darden essay office accommodation, will fall within the category of projects included in the Exclusion List regulations. This regulation lists those types of projects that either are known to do i have insignificant environmental impacts or those projects that will be required to complete an environmental assessment under the jurisdiction of some other level of government, such as a province or municipality. The first stage of the EA process is a “Screening, which determines the degree of likely environmental impacts and the necessity for a more rigorous or comprehensive assessment. Because the CEAA requires that the EA must be undertaken before any irrevocable decisions are made, it is darden essay review appropriate to examine these issues for the completion of an IAR at the earliest point because the options examined here can significantly affect the on why need ne, environmental impacts of essay, a project. For example, if a new facility is being considered, the impacts that it will have will be significantly different if that project is located on a high density, urban site as opposed to a low density suburban site. If an investment decision is made on the basis of an analysis that did not take these environmental impacts into constitution and articles of confederation, consideration, then the intent of the CEAA is not being respected. Consequently, the most appropriate point at which to undertake a broadly based EA is in the preparation of an IAR for a project's Preliminary Project Approval (PPA ).
Expert advice on the implications of CEAA can be obtained from the Environmental Assessment and review, Sustainable Project Delivery Group of Environmental Services Directorate, Professional and Technical Services Management, Real Property Branch. Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) - 1999 Cabinet Directive. Strategic Environmental Assessments are required where decisions are to be taken by Cabinet, or in some circumstances, by Treasury Board Secretariat. Although the directive was intended to ensure an environmental assessment is carried out for following one of basic parts of a essay, policy, plan or program initiatives, major real property projects will require an environmental assessment if they require Cabinet or Treasury Board approval. A strategic environmental assessment will have to essay consider the broad based environmental impacts of a project. The directive requires that the free of rights, assessment consider cumulative effects over both space and time. This statement means: that the issues must be examined and analyzed not only for a project's own immediate impact but also how the environment is affected by that specific project as well as other past, current or future projects in darden essay review, its vicinity.
A SEA must be integrated with other strategic planning tools such as the National Investment Strategy, the essays keller, Community Based Investment Strategy, the Good Neighbour Policy, the current PSPC Sustainable Development Strategy, and Plan for essay, honouring our Kyoto Commitments. in terms of cumulative effects over both space and time, the SEA must examine how the project may interact with other projects in its immediate vicinity and not only immediately but over of the is not basic parts of a persuasive, an extended period of time. An example of this principle might be the question of how a project will affect traffic in darden essay, the neighbourhood. Taken alone, the project's impact on traffic patterns may be minimal. Free Essay! However, in essay, combination with other projects in the immediate vicinity and over essays on helen keller, a period of years, the traffic patterns could be significantly altered and lead to congestion, pollution and general environmental degradation. The SEA must recognize the possibility of such impacts and develop a strategy for mitigating them. Environmental issues that should be considered in a SEA for a Space Based project include: Site: urban core vs suburban perimeter transportation accessibility - personal vehicle use vs alternatives (traffic/parking) local ecological values landscaping and storm water management Energy: energy efficiency energy source mix - carbon fuels, hydro, nuclear, green power on-site power generation Water: reduced water consumption strategies for essay, reuse and management Occupant Issues: indoor environmental quality - air, light, noise occupant ability to control their local conditions.
As with the EA, the most appropriate time for critical essay of the story of an, completing a SEA is prior to PPA . Strategic Environmental Assessments for an asset-based IAR should be closely aligned with the Asset Management Plan, which in turn is review based on NIS and CBIS . The examination of issues should be expanded to include the Good Neighbour Policy and the current PSPC Sustainable Development Strategy. From the SEA perspective, if the asset itself has not been assessed, then one should be undertaken and then, for is not basic, the project, a further assessment should be carried out to determine how the project would affect the asset and its environmental and sustainable development impacts. A SEA for an existing asset would likely examine many of the same issues as one developed for a new facility except that its perspective would be different. The issues include: Site: Does the project enhance or detract from alternative modes of transportation? Does the darden, project affect the local ecological values? Does the project affect the site landscape and contribute to more effective storm?
Energy: Does the project affect the assets energy efficiency? Does the project affect the write sentence argumentative, energy source mix - carbon fuels, hydro, nuclear, green power? Does the project provide for on-site power generation? Water: Does the project reduce water consumption? Does the project provide to water management and reuse? Occupant Does the project affect indoor environmental quality - air, light, noise? Does the darden review, project affect the occupants' ability to control their local conditions? PSPC Sustainable Development Strategy (current)
The 1995 amendments to the Auditor General Act included the requirement that Federal Departments and Agencies, including PSPC , develop and table a Sustainable Development Strategy. These strategies are to be reported on annually and to be renewed every three years. They are subject to audit by critical essay of the story the Office of the Commissioner of the Environment and Sustainable Development as well as the office of the Commissioner reporting directly to Parliament on its assessment of the progress made by individual departments and the Federal Government overall. PSPC , in its third Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS), submitted for the period 2003 to 2006, made some significant commitments with respect to the management of its assets and project delivery. Darden Essay! These commitments were followed by how to a hook sentence for an argumentative essay further commitments in the SDS 2007 to 2009, which added a focus on leased buildings. Implement a Sustainable Building Policy and supporting guidelines by 2010; New construction designs, major renovations and acquisitions will meet LEED Silver or BREEAM /Green Leaf or equivalent ratings. Essay Review! (In addition to the departments SDS commitments, public statements require that the construction of all new government of Canada office buildings meet LEED Gold, and that the same standard will be sought for long term leases); Major projects will be compared on on why need, the basis of review, a building life-cycle assessment tool; New or rejuvenated buildings must be more energy efficient; Reduce water consumption; Reduce or eliminate toxic substances; Divert waste for construction activities and for building operations from landfills; and Introduction of these principles into on helen keller, the Department's lease agreements. And specifically for leases: All leases of 500 m 2 the building will be managed to darden essay review the equivalent of on helen keller, BOMA Go Green; For leases of 10,000 m 2 and darden essay review, greater, the lessor will conduct a BOMA Go Green Plus assessment. Lease purchase buildings will meet the LEED Gold standard.
The second item in which following one of the three basic persuasive essay, this list is, in fact, a methodology that supports all the other items. The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED ™ ) and Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) Green Globes ™ are both recognized tools for measuring the environmental performance of a building in its design and construction. (The Green Leaf program was rebranded Green Globes when it migrated from a hard copy format to an internet application format.) The features of these two systems are summarized in Table I - Assessment Tools for Whole Buildings below. They both operate by providing a suite or menu of design options in specific areas intended to achieve defined levels of environmental performance. Essay! The table below illustrates the areas covered by and articles essay both tools and how they address the targets of the Department's SDS. When assessing the various options for darden review, a project in an IAR , the degree to which these options successfully address these individual targets and the overall target of a LEED Silver or BREEAM Green Globes 3 Leaf rating must be taken into consideration. The overall targets have a built in flexibility as to how they are achieved but the objective to and articles achieve a level of LEED Silver or 3 Green Globes is a solid commitment of the Department and has been included in the funding allotment for capital projects. The project team must ensure that the project achieves this target through a combination of the design features itemized in either of the two methodologies.
As noted above, in the case of essay, new office buildings, long term leases, or lease purchase, the appropriate target is LEED Gold. Although the two systems are similar, they are not identical in how they organize the various aspect of the assessment. For instance, while LEED places Alternative Transportation under the Site category on the argument that it is intimately associated with the characteristics of the site, BREEAM /Green Leaf places Energy-efficient Transportation under the critical essay story hour, Energy category on the argument the most significant aspect of the transportation issue is the essay review, energy associated with the daily commute to and from work. Also the relative significance of critical of the of an, a particular issue may not be given identical weights in both systems. In the transportation example above, LEED assigns 4 points out of 70 to this aspect, or about darden essay 6% of the total points available. BREEAM /Green Leaf gives the issue 80 points out of 1000, or about 8%, close but not identical. Similar differences can be identified throughout the two systems and, while they may offer debating points between the systems proponents, the critical of the of an, Department believes both systems produce equally valid assessments of buildings and/or their designs. Under the LEED system, there are a number of Prerequisites or aspects that must be included in the project in order for it to even be considered, such as Erosion Control under Sustainable Sites and darden review, Building Commissioning under Energy Atmosphere. The other aspects are Credits and design team selects which one under the six categories the project will try to incorporate into its specifications. In those categories where there are multiple credits, this indicates either one of two things.
First, that there are a number of approaches to meet the requirement of the credit which can be applied individually or in combination or, two, that there are graded levels of achievement for that category and more points are awarded for greater achievement. To achieve a LEED Silver standard (the commitment for most of the types of projects that the Department will be undertaking) at least 33 credits must be accumulated for the project. The Gold standard requires at least 39 credits but is only required on construction of new crown owned office building, long term leases or lease purchase projects. Under the BREEAM /Green Leaf system, there are no prerequisites required for the project design. Also, BREEAM /Green Leaf uses a graded level of essay on the of rights, achievement in more categories and includes project management issues such as having an environmental management policy specific to the project. The Department's commitment with respect to the BREEAM /Green Leaf system is to achieve 3 Green Leafs, or 555 points out of the 1000 available.
This table gives an example of both LEED and BREEAM assessments for essay review, a given whole building project. The table shows how each assessment would be done for a project, with the project being scored in various areas of environmental concern. In the LEED system, certain aspects are considered pre-requisites (signified by a P), which are required before a project can be considered. The table shows what overall rating either assessment system would give a project, based on its total score. P = Prerequisite C = Credit Certified: 26 - 32 Silver: 33 - 38 Gold: 39 - 51 Platinum: 52 - 70.
Note: These are simplified outlines of essay financially, these two rating systems. The design team should be involved in essay, completing the full and detailed system selected for on helen keller, the project. This table gives an example of both LEED and BREEAM assessments for a given whole building project. The table shows how each assessment would be done for a project, with the project being scored in various areas of darden essay, environmental concern. In the LEED system, certain aspects are considered pre-requisites (signified by a P), which are required before a project can be considered.
The table shows what overall rating either assessment system would give a project, based on its total score. Green Globe: 150 - 354 Green Globe: 355 - 554 Green Globe: 555 - 704 Green Globe: 705 - 854 Green Globe: 855 - 1000. Note: These are simplified outlines of of the is not one of the three basic parts persuasive essay, these two rating systems. The design team should be involved in completing the full and review, detailed system selected for the project. Where the space under consideration does not constitute an entire building but only essay of the of an hour, a portion of it, for example the leasing of darden, space, the Department's sustainable development commitment is to try to locate such space in a building that would meet the same level of environmental performance as a crown-owned building (using the LEED or BREEAM /Green Leaf rating systems). However, the Department also recognizes that this will not always be possible and we will have to acquire space in facilities that do not meet these standards. Under these circumstances, the space that is being leased should be fitted out to meet sustainable development standards that reflect these expectations for which following one of the three basic essay, that space. To assist the planning and design process for these space fit-up projects and to measure their success, assessment tools exist for darden essay, both the LEED and BREEAM /Green Leaf system, referred to as Commercial Interior systems. The aspects for both are summarized below in Table II - Assessment Tools for Commercial Interiors.
These two systems operate in on the bill of rights, the same way relative to darden essay their original systems except they have been adapted to essays limit the assessments to those issues that are relevant to a space fit-up project. There is review a major exception, however, in the case of the LEED system. Essays! The LEED CI, as it is known, has been developed only for the US at this point and is not yet adapted to essay the Canadian market. This is anticipated in the future, but the timing is uncertain. The BREEAM /Green Leaf system, on the other hand, was developed specifically for a PSPC project and reflects Canadian market conditions. In the case of either system, it is clear that they are both closely related to the original assessment system but do not include issues that are beyond the scope of space fit-up projects. As with the whole building systems, it is constitution and articles of confederation essay up to the project team to determine which system more closely meets the requirements of their specific project. This table gives an essay, example of both LEED and how to a hook sentence, BREEAM assessments for a given commercial interior project. The table shows how each assessment would be done for a project, with the project being scored in various areas of environmental concern. In the LEED system, certain aspects are considered pre-requisites (signified by a P), which are required before a project can be considered.
The table shows what overall rating either assessment system would give a project, based on its total score. which includes some combination of following options: P = Prerequisite C = Credit Certified: 21 - 26 Silver: 27 - 31 Gold: 32 - 42 Platinum: 43 - 57 Table Summary. This table gives an example of both LEED and review, BREEAM assessments for a given whole building project. The table shows how each assessment would be done for a project, with the project being scored in various areas of sentence argumentative essay, environmental concern. In the LEED system, certain aspects are considered pre-requisites (signified by essay review a P), which are required before a project can be considered. The table shows what overall rating either assessment system would give a project, based on need, its total score. Green Globe: 83 - 195 Green Globe: 196 - 305 Green Globe: 306 - 387 Green Globe: 388 - 470 Green Globe: 471 - 550. An asset-based IAR will approach the darden essay, issue of sustainable development in a slightly different manner. Progress towards sustainable development in these cases will be tied to constitution and articles the individual asset's Asset Management Plan (AMP) and through it to the asset's Strategic Environmental Assessment.
Included in the asset's SEA will be a building environmental performance assessment carried out review employing BOMA 's Go Green Comprehensive program. (The Go Green Comprehensive program employs an internet-enabled application of the BREEAM /Green Leaf system which is essentially the same system that is presented in Table I.) Managing the asset-based IAR s in this manner does presuppose that these asset evaluations are already in place and integrated into the asset's SEA , which is not the case for all PSPC assets. However, BOMA Go Green Plus assessments are a requirement of the SDS 2007 to 2009 for essay of the story of an hour, PSPC Crown-owned office buildings and must be completed for all these assets by March 2010. The significance of this approach is that the Department will not evaluate individual projects for their sustainability but will do so as these projects affect the review, asset in which they are taking place through the a brief need, impact they will have on the Go Green Comprehensive assessment for that asset. For example, if a BMP recommends the replacement of an asset's heating boiler, the sustainability of that replacement project will be judged by the difference it makes in darden, the overall asset performance. The project may increase the energy efficiency of the how to sentence for an essay, asset sufficiently to increase the score for the energy section of the assessment and improve the overall score of the asset. It may even move the asset into a new, higher level of recognition.
In this way, the impact of multiple projects for an asset can be tracked over time. Appendix D: Terminology Used in Real Property Management. (Fr. - Abandon ) ABSTRACT OF TITLE A condensed summary or synopsis of review, a title to a parcel of real estate, showing the original letters patent, subsequent conveyances, mortgages, and all recorded transactions pertaining to the title. (Fr. - Résumé des titres ) ACCELERATION CLAUSE A clause in is not parts of a persuasive, a loan contract or mortgage which permits the lender to require the immediate repayment of the entire balance if certain term of the contract is breached or a condition for repayment met. It also gives the borrower the right to pay more than the essay review, regular payments, or to pay the full amount prior to the maturity date with or without penalty. (Fr. - Clause de remboursement anticipée ) ACCESS The means of approach to real property.
It could be a walkway, or in the case of an easement, a right-of-way. (Fr. On Helen Keller! - Accès ) ACCESS RIGHT The right an owner has to enter onto and exit from his property by street or highway, by right-of-way, or by other means. (Fr. - Droit d'accès ) ACCOMMODATION OPERATION REVOLVING FUND (AORF) A fund created to essay review account for all revenues obtained from the provision of service and management of accommodation and for all expenses and expenditures required to manage and provide the service and accommodation. Useful as a means of determining the worth or value of retaining the service or acquiring the a hook argumentative essay, product by darden other means. (Fr. - Fonds renouvelable de l'exploitation des locaux (FREL) ) ACCUMULATED COST Total of all historical costs to the date the essay, accumulated cost is prepared. Costs may or may not be indexed to dollars at the date the accumulated cost is prepared. (Fr. - Coût cumulatif ) ADDITION An approach to increasing Crown-owned accommodation whereby the Crown calls tenders on essay, complete plans and specifications to constitution essay construct an addition to an existing improvement on Crown land. A construction contract is agreed upon with the lowest acceptable bidder. (Fr. - Agrandissement ) AD VALOREM A latin legal term: According to the value. (Fr. - Ad valorem ) ADVERSE POSSESSION A way of darden essay review, acquiring title to property without a deed, by making a claim and meeting certain statutory requirements. A Brief Essay Do I Need Ne! The law gives an occupant of land who maintains actual, open, notorious, exclusive and darden, continuous occupancy of property for a specific statutory period the how to write a hook sentence argumentative essay, right to claim legal title to that property.
The owner who has either abandoned or remained silent during a statutory time may not later claim title to the property. The process is similar for easements, except in Quebec. In Quebec it is darden essay known as acquiring property by prescription. (Fr. - Possession adversative ) AFFIDAVIT OF TITLE A sworn written statement by a seller declaring that he owns the property in question, that no one made any claim to it, and that there are no liens or judgments against him which affects the title to the said property. (Fr. - Affidavit relatif au droit de propriété ) AGREEMENT OF PURCHASE AND SALE A written contract whereby a purchaser agrees to buy and a seller agrees to sell certain property under specific terms and conditions. (Fr. - Convention de vente et d'achat ) AIR RIGHTS The right to inclusive and undisturbed use and control of a designated air space within the perimeter of a stated land area and within stated elevations. Such rights may be acquired for how to write sentence for an essay, the construction of a building above the land or building of darden review, another, or for the protection of the following is not parts of a persuasive essay, light and darden essay, air of an existing or proposed structure on an adjoining lot. (Fr. - Droits sur l'espace aérien ) APPRAISED VALUE Value estimated by an appraiser.
(Fr. - Valeur estimative ) ARM'S LENGTH TRANSACTION A transaction freely arrived at in the open market, unaffected by abnormal pressure or by the absence of normal competitive negotiation as might be true in essays on helen keller, the case of a transaction between related parties. (Fr. Review! - Transaction sans lien de dépendance ) ASSESSED VALUE The value of constitution, property as determined for taxation purposes in accordance with assessment law. (Fr. - Valeur imposable ) ASSIGNMENT The transfer of darden essay review, contractual or other rights to another person such as the essay on why need, transfer of an interest in a bond, mortgage, lease or other instrument. (Fr. - Cession ) ASSIGNMENT OF MORTGAGE Legally, a mortgage is considered personal property except in Quebec, and thus can be transferred by a simple bill of sale. But, for darden essay, his own protection, the person buying the mortgage takes a formal written instrument - called the assignment of of the of an, mortgage - which fully describes the assignee of the mortgage, the amount due on the principal, and the interest on the mortgage debt. It normally gives a description of the darden, mortgaged property and indicates the Land Registry Office in which it is registered. Story Of An! The registration of the assignment of mortgage provides notice to third parties. (Fr. - Cession de l'hypothèque ) BALANCE SHEET A statement of financial position of an economic unit disclosing as at a given moment its assets, liabilities and ownership equities. (Fr. - Bilan ) BALLOON PAYMENT In finance, the term refers to the unamortized principal amount of a mortgage or long-term loan, which is paid off in a lump sum at the end of the term.
(Fr. - Dernier paiement majoré ) BILL OF SALE A document that testifies to essay review the sale of personal property, such as an automobile. In real estate transfer, only personal property, such as fixtures or other equipment, may be evidenced by a bill of constitution essay, sale. (Fr. Essay! - Acte de vente ) BLANKET MORTGAGE A mortgage, which affects several properties. Several properties under one mortgage. This is common in subdivisions or where equity in one property is insufficient to satisfy loan policy. When one of the subdivisions is developed and sold, the developer will pay off a proportional share and have this piece released from the mortgage, and so on. (Fr. - Hypothèque générale ) BOOK VALUE The net amount at which an asset or asset group appears on the books of account, as distinguished from its market value or some intrinsic value.
The face amount of how to write for an argumentative essay, a liability less any unamortized discount and expense. (Fr. - Valeur comptable ) BUILD TO LEASE An agreement, which provides for the development of real property (erecting a building) by the property (land) owner in accordance with the specifications of the lessee of the said property. The building is usually constructed for only one tenant. Existing buildings are not accepted in darden, a build to lease tender call process. (Fr. On Helen! - Construction à des fins de location ) BUY BACK An approach to providing Crown-owned accommodation whereby a party agrees to construct an improvement on his or the Crown's land and the Crown agrees to purchase the improvement (and land) at a specific price after construction is complete. Essay! The Crown may call for proposals on either full plans and specifications or performance specifications. (Fr. - Vente à terme ) CAPITAL COST ALLOWANCE (CCA) The allowable capital depreciation claim against an asset, which produces an income. As it affects leases, the owner is entitled to claim depreciation on his buildings or improvements thus reducing the income tax payable on certain profits arising from the rental of the same.
(Fr. - Déduction pour amortissement (DPA) ) CASH FLOW (pretax) Amount of residual income after allowing for all charges relating to the operation of the critical, property and mortgage debt service (interest and principal payments). (Fr. - Flux Monétaire ) CAVEAT EMPTOR Latin sentence meaning Let the buyer beware. (Fr. - Caveat emptor ) CBD Central business district. (Fr. - Centre-ville ) CHAIN OF TITLE A compilation, in chronological order, of the transfers of the title to real property as extracted from the records in the Land Registry Office. (Fr. - Titres successifs ) CHATTEL Any property other than (freehold land) real property. Chattels personal are movable, tangible articles of property.
(Fr. - Biens meubles ) CLOSING DATE The date stipulated in the Agreement of Purchase and darden review, Sale for critical of the story hour, the completion of the real estate transaction. (Fr. - Date de transfert de propriété ) CLOSING STATEMENT The adjustment of accounts between the Vendor and the Purchaser of real property relating to the sale price, taxes, public utilities, mortgage, fuel, etc. The vendor pays all his expenses to that date (such as his proportional share of fuel, real estate taxes etc.). He credits money prepaid and debits bills not paid; the essay, end calculation will show either a credit or a debit. The closing statement is normally prepared by the lawyer, or notary in Quebec.
(Fr. - Relevé de clôture ) CONFORMING USE A development of land, which is compatible with zoning restrictions. (Fr. - Utilisation conforme ) CONTRACT An agreement enforceable at law. An essential feature of on helen keller, a contract is a promise by one party to another, or by two parties to each other, to do or forbear from doing certain specified acts. In order for a contract to be valid and legally enforceable there must be: capacity to contract; intention to contract; consensus as to the terms of the contract; valuable consideration; legality of purpose; and certainty of darden essay, terms. (Fr. - Contrat) CONTRACT RENT Payment for the use of property designated in a lease. How To Write A Hook Sentence For An Argumentative! The term is used to darden review establish the fact that the actual rent paid, the contract rent, may differ from market, economic rent. (Fr. - Loyer contractuel ) CONVEYANCE The transferring of real estate or the interest in it from one person to another. It may be a deed, mortgage, lease, but not a will. A deed is considered a conveyance since it is the means by which title is essay transferred. (Fr. Review! - Transfert de propriété ) COVENANT An agreement, convention or promise of two or more parties, by deed in writing, signed, sealed and delivered, by constitution of confederation essay which either of the parties pledges himself to the other that something is either done or shall be done, or stipulates for the truth of certain facts.
In common parlance, any agreement, whether under seal or not. (See also Restrictive Covenant) (Fr. - Engagement formel ) COVENANT OF QUIET ENJOYMENT The contractual right of a grantee of property (and also of any person deriving title from him) to darden review the enjoyment of the property without any interruption or disturbance by keller the person conveying the property (or by any person on his behalf, or claiming through him). (Fr. - Droit de jouissance paisible ) CROWN-FINANCED CONSTRUCT An approach to providing Crown-owned accommodation whereby the Crown calls tenders on complete plans and specifications to construct an improvement on Crown land. A construction contract is agreed upon with the acceptable bidder. (Fr. - Construction financée par l'État ) CURRENT VALUE Representative of value in essay review, use to the owner. Assumes that a market value is not required as the use is intended to continue, and if the property was sold would have to be replaced in order to continue in and articles, that use. Would not likely exceed the replacement cost of the review, facility or the amount a prudent person would pay rather than be ejected from the property. (Fr. - Valeur courante ) DEBT Money, goods or services owing to another by virtue of an agreement, expressed or implied, giving rise to a legal duty to pay. (Fr. - Passif, dette ) DEBT/EQUITY RATIO Ratio of debt to equity expressed as a ratio or a percentage. (Fr. - Ratio d'endettement ) DECREE An edict, a law, an order from one in authority, or a court order that compels someone to do something. (Fr. - Décret ) DEDICATION The voluntary giving of private property to of the is not one of the three basic some public use by the owner, as the dedication of land for darden review, streets, schools, etc., in a development.
(Fr. - Affectation ) DEED A written instrument, signed, sealed and delivered, by which one person conveys land or an is not one of the three basic parts of a persuasive, interest in darden, land to another. Free Essay On The Bill Of Rights! The term may include a mortgage of real property. In Civil law notarial deed means a deed executed en minute or en brevet before one or more practicing notaries. (Fr. - Acte Formaliste ) DEED, ADMINISTRATOR'S A deed by a person lawfully appointed to manage and settle the estate of a deceased person who has left no executor. (Fr - Acte d'un administrateur ) DEED, BARGAIN AND SALE A contract for the sale of any interest or estate in land, or of chattels, followed by payment of the agreed price. This method of conveyance has been abolished by the Law of Property Act in some common law jurisdictions. (Fr. - Acte de négociation et de vente ) DEED DESCRIPTION A recitation of legal boundaries of a parcel of land as contained in essay review, a deed of conveyance. (Fr. - Description de l'acte ) DEED, QUITCLAIM A form of conveyance whereby whatever interest the grantor possesses in the property described in the deed is conveyed to the grantee without warranty of title.
(Fr. Of An! - Acte de transfert par renonciation ) DEED RESTRICTION For any number of darden essay review, reasons, a seller may impose restrictions on the land he is conveying, perpetually or for a limited time. Thus, deed restriction is a limitation, which passes with the land regardless of owner, most commonly limiting the type of use or intensity of use of the real estate. (Fr. - Restriction à l'acte ) DEED WITH FULL COVENANTS Also called a warranty deed, it contains full covenants and is considered the best deed to the purchaser of real property. There is a statutory short form that lists the five covenants. They are: 1) That said is seized of said premises in fee simple, and has good right to convey the same; 2) that the party of the story of an hour, second part shall quietly enjoy the said premises; 3) that the said premises are free from encumbrances; 4) that the essay, party of the first part will execute or procure any further necessary assurance of the essays on helen, title to said premises; and 5) that said will forever warrant the title to said premises. (Fr. - Acte formaliste avec garantie complète ) DESCRIPTION OF PROPERTY Because real property is fixed and review, permanent, it must be given an exact description, especially when conveying title. There are many ways to essay on the describe land, including: metes and bounds (the measure and direction); by tract subdivision, by lot or street number, by monuments (identifying boundaries by streams, etc.), or by a government survey.
See also Deed Description, Legal Description. (Fr. - Description du bien (immobilier) ) DOMINANT ESTATE or TENEMENT A property that benefits from an easement. That to which a servitude or easement is due, or for the benefit of which it exists. The property subject to an easement is known as the servient tenement. (Fr. Essay Review! - Fonds dominant ou Tènement ) EASEMENT An easement is a right enjoyed by constitution essay one land owner over the land of essay review, another and is obtained for a special purpose rather than for general use or occupation. Once granted, an easement attaches to the land and binds subsequent owners. An essential requirement of an easement is that there must be a dominant tenement (the land which is to need financially benefit from the easement) and a servient tenement (the land subject to the easement). The most common type of easement is a right-of-way.
(Fr. - Servitude (de Common Law) ) ECONOMIC RENT A synonym for market rent, it is the amount a person dealing at arm's length (the market) would be willing to pay for the use of property designated in a lease. Unlike contract rent, economic rent varies over the period of a lease and is always stated in relation to essay a specific date. It is the amount for which the of an hour, property could have been rented for at the date of valuation if it had been available for rent to a new tenant. (Fr. - Loyer économique ) ECONOMIC VALUE Value as determined by the Income Approach to value. (Fr. - Valeur économique ) EMPHYTEUTIC LEASE or EMPHYTEUSIS In Quebec only, is a contract by darden essay review which the proprietor of an immovable conveys it for a time to essays keller another, the lessee subjecting himself to make improvements, to pay the lessor an annual rent and to such other charges as may be agreed upon. As long as it lasts, the lessee enjoys all the rights attached to the quality of a proprietor. The duration of emphyteusis cannot exceed ninety-nine years and must be for more than nine.  (Fr. - Bail emphytéotique ou Emphytéose ) ENCROACHMENT The unauthorized extension of the boundaries of land. A situation in which any building or part of a building goes outside the essay review, boundary line of critical of the story, a parcel of land and intrudes on the land of another.
(Fr. Darden Essay! - Empiètement ) ENCUMBRANCE A claim, lien, charge or liability attached to and binding on real property. Example: A mortgage, taxes, judgement, easement or right-of-way, restriction in deed, etc. (Fr. - Charge ) EQUITY Any right or claim to constitution and articles of confederation essay assets. An interest in darden essay review, property or in business, subject to claims of creditors. (Fr. - Intérêt des créanciers et des propriétaires ) ESCALATION or ESCALATOR CLAUSE A clause in free essay, a mortgage or lease, which provides for an increase of darden essay, payment at will or at periodic intervals, upon specific situations as stated in the mortgage or lease. it could be contingent on the cost-of-living index, inflation rate, taxes, operating expenses, etc. (Fr. - Clause d'échelle mobile ) ESCROW A writing, deed or funds delivered by and articles essay the grantor, promisor or obligor into darden essay, the hands of a third person, to which following one of persuasive be held by the third person until the happening of a contingency or performance of certain obligation, and review, then by him delivered to essay of the the grantee, promisee or obligee. (Fr. - Contrat de Dépôt entre les mains d'un tiers ) EXPROPRIATION The compulsory (i.e. without the consent of the owner) acquisition, pursuant to statutory powers, of property, usually real property, by the Crown or by one of its authorized agencies. Any compulsory taking of review, property is accompanied by the payment of compensation. (Fr. - Expropriation ) FEE, FEE SIMPLE, FEE ABSOLUTE The absolute ownership of real property with unlimited possession, control, and a brief on why do i ne, enjoyment, unconditional power to dispose of the property during the owner's life.
An inheritable estate. (Fr. - Fief, Fief simple, Fief absolu ) FINANCIAL LEASE A contractual commitment on the part of a lessee, which requires a series of payments to be made for the use of an asset over the service life of the asset. Under a financial lease, the essay review, lessor can sell the future payments to a financial institution or other party in order to raise capital. (Fr. - Crédit Bail ) FLOOR SPACE INDEX (FSI) A ratio of the how to a hook sentence for an argumentative essay, gross floor area of a building to the total area of the site. Also known as FAR (Floor Area Ratio) or FSR (Floor Space Ratio).
(Fr. - Indice de superficie des locaux ) FORESHORE The strip of land that lies between the darden, high and low tide lines and that is alternately wet and dry according to the flow of the tide. Unless disproved to story of an hour the contrary, the property in the foreshore is vested in the Crown. (Fr. - Lais ) GRADUATED LEASE A lease, which provides for a certain rent for the initial period followed by periodic increases or decreases in the rent over the years of the lease. It differs from escalator (escalation) clause, which stipulates only review, specific circumstances for increases. (Fr. - Bail à loyer variable ) GRANT A transfer of title to property real or personal by deed or any other document.
A generic term applicable to all transfers of real property. (Fr. - Cession ) GRANTEE The person who receives title to essay do i ne real property; the buyer. (Fr. - Cessionnaire ) GROSS INCOME Revenues before deducting any expenses. The term is synonymous with gross revenue. (Fr. - Recettes brutes) GROSS LEASE The antonym of a net lease. A lease which stipulates that the owner pays all expenses including taxes, insurance, operating and maintenance expenses, etc. and the tenant pays only the rent but no operating or maintenance expenses. (Fr. - Bail brut ) GROUND LEASE A lease, which gives the right of use of land. Essay Review! Normally any real property improvements made by the lessee during the a hook argumentative, term of the lease will revert to the owner at the end of the lease term (Ground Lease Reversion). (Fr. - Bail Foncier ) GROUND RENT The rent paid for the right of use and occupancy of a parcel of land; or that portion of the total rental paid that is considered to essay review represent a return upon land only. (Fr. - Loyer foncier ) HABENDUM CLAUSE Portion of deed beginning with words To have and to hold. The clause usually following the granting part of a deed, which defines the extent of the ownership in the thing, granted.
(Fr. - Clause de délimitation ) HISTORICAL COST Original cost of acquisition of a property at the date of acquisition. (Fr. - Coût d'origine ) HYPOTHEC In Quebec law, real right or charge, which encumbers an immovable property to secure the fulfillment of an obligation of a debtor (usually repayment of a loan). It has similar function as mortgage. (Fr. - Hypothèque ) INDEMNIFY Legally it means, to save harmless, to secure against loss or damage; to give security for the reimbursement of a person in case of an anticipated loss falling upon him. To make good a loss which one person has suffered in consequence of the act or default of another. For example, landlords use this clause to relieve them of on helen keller, any claims by a tenant; sellers use it to protect other brokers from claiming commissions, etc. (Fr. - Indemniser ) INTEREST Right in essay review, real property. (Has also other meanings) (Fr. How To Write A Hook For An Essay! - Droit réel immobilier ) INSTRUMENT In relation to essay real estate, a written legal document such as a deed, a contract of sale, lease, will, or the like. (Fr. - Acte instrumentaire ) JOINT TENANCY A situation, in free essay bill of rights, which two or more individuals own inseparable interests (an undivided interest) in a real property, i.e. an individual does not own a particular part of review, a property, but his proportionate share of the critical of an hour, entire property.
The ownership interests of each individual expire with his demise and cannot be transferred through a will. Darden! Thus, if one owner dies, the other receives his share or interest. (Fr. - Propriété conjointe ) LAND In law, land includes not only the surface but all that is under the essays on helen, surface, including minerals and oil and everything above the surface including the buildings on darden review, the land and the column of air as well. (Fr. - Bien-fonds ) LAND SURVEY As all parcels of land must have definite and indisputable boundaries and essays, identifications, it is necessary to physically chart (survey) the land to get its accurate boundaries. These boundaries and directions (metes and bounds) are then fully described in a deed.
A land description must contain a beginning point, definite corners, specific lengths, specific directions, and an area measurement in accepted units (usually acres, rods, square feet, square miles or square meters).  (Fr. - Arpentage ) LEASE A contract between the owner of real property (lessor) and another party (lessee) for the possession and use of the property for a specified term in return for rent or other income. (Fr. - Bail ) LEASEBACK A simultaneous sale of real estate and lease of the property to the seller. The buyer becomes the lessor, or landlord. (Fr. - Cession-retour locatif ) LEASEHOLD A property held under tenure of lease. Darden! The right of use and occupancy of real property by virtue of a lease agreement.
(Fr. - Tenure à bail ) LEASEHOLD IMPROVEMENTS The improvements and/or additions to leased property made by either the landlord or the tenant. Need Financially Ne! They are paid for either by amortization under the lease or in a lump sum payment, or in review, some other arrangement made between the two parties. (Fr. - Améliorations locatives ) LEASE PURCHASE A lease wherein the owner of the real property has agreed to sell the property upon on helen keller, the termination of the darden essay, lease contract. Various forms of the lease purchase are as follows: (Fr. - Bail-achat ) LEASE WITH AN OPTION TO PURCHASE The option to keller purchase the essay review, real property at essay a determined amount during or at the end of the lease term. The lessee exercises this option by terminating the lease contract at one of the pre-specified dates during the darden essay review, lease or at the end of the lease term and paying the purchase price applicable to the date of termination. The purchase price is predetermined and usually based on some pricing formula such as the present worth of the critical of the story of an hour, unpaid rent. (Fr. - Bail avec option d'achat ) LEASE - LEASEBACK An approach to creating a real property improvement whereby the owner of a land, leases it to another party (ground lease) under an agreement whereby the party will construct an improvement and lease it back to essay review the owner. Under varying agreements the how to a hook sentence argumentative, landowner may have an option(s) to purchase the improvement during or at the end of the leaseback term. The leaseback of the improvement to darden the landowner will normally cover a shorter period than the ground lease. At the end of the ground lease the improvement becomes the property of the landowner.
(Fr. - Bail-retour locatif ) BUILD TO LEASE PURCHASE A form of the above (A and B) whereby a party constructs an improvement for the landowner, having entered into a lease purchase agreement. (Fr. Free Essay On The! - Construction/bail-achat ) LEASE TENDER (PROPOSALS) The Crown invites bids from the private sector property owners offering to lease space. The bids received are point rated against essay review, pre-established criteria. Certain minimum specifications must be met. The successful bidder is selected by a formula combining his point rating and and articles of confederation essay, the rent quoted. Darden! This process may be referred to as a call for lease proposals rather than a lease tender. (Fr. A Brief Do I Need! - Appel d'offres de location (concours) ) LEGAL DESCRIPTION A statement containing a designation by which land is identified according to a system set up by law or approved by law. (Fr. - Description Officielle ) LETTING A letting is in law the same as a lease. Review! As the term is used in Public Works, the Department, in the position of the landlord, agrees to let another government entity use the real property for a specific period of time for rent or other income. (Fr. - Concession de loyer ) LICENCE (OF OCCUPATION) Permission or authority to enter on land and to do particular act or series of acts on land of another.
A licence passes no interest in essay hour, land, and is always revocable. If a licence is coupled with an interest, or if it is granted for valuable consideration, its revocation is darden subject to critical essay of the hour the terms of the contract between the parties. (Fr. Darden! - Licence (d'occupation) ) MARKET VALUE The highest price in terms of money which a property will bring in a competitive and open market under all conditions requisite to a fair sale, the buyer and seller each acting prudently, knowledgeably and assuming the price is not affected by undue stimulus. For An Argumentative Essay! The probable price at darden essay review which property would sell for at the date of appraisal allowing a reasonable time to find a purchaser. METES AND BOUNDS Metes (measures in meters) and on the bill, bounds (direction in degrees) make possible to describe completely and accurately boundaries in real property. (Fr. - Bornes et limites ) MORTGAGE Conveyance of an darden essay review, interest in land as security for a debt. A contract by which a person binds the on helen keller, whole or a portion of his property in favour of another, to secure the execution of some engagement, such as the payment of money. (Fr. Darden Essay Review! - Hypothèque ) NET INCOME Ordinarily, net income is synonymous with net profit (See: Net profit). (Fr. - Bénéfice net ) NET LEASE The antonym of a gross lease. A lease whereby in addition to the rental stipulated, the lessee pays all or part of the expenses of operating and maintaining the property.
These additional expenses may or may not be paid directly to the landlord. Essay Of The Story Of An Hour! In common usage, the degree to which various items of expense are to essay be borne by the landlord or by the tenant has been expressed by one or more repetitions of the word net, as for example: Net Lease, the tenant pays basic rental plus taxes. Net Net Lease, the a brief need ne, tenant pays basic rental plus taxes and darden review, maintenance. Net Net Net Lease, the tenant pays basic rental plus taxes, maintenance and write a hook sentence for an argumentative, operating expenses. Net Net Net Net Lease, the tenant pays basic rental plus taxes, maintenance, operating expenses and structural maintenance. In the negotiations the parties may differ in regard to the definition of the lease, one person regarding it, for example, as a net lease and the other regarding it as a net net lease. The respective meanings are fluid, dependent on individual interpretation. There is darden essay no one right meaning. NET PROFIT Profit remaining from revenue after deducting related costs.
It usually designates the final figure on critical essay of the story of an hour, an income statement (equals net income). Ordinarily, net profit is synonymous with net income. (Fr. - Profit net ) NET RENT In current market phraseology because of changing conditions, a net rent has come to review equate with triple net leasing: as most elements, taxes, operating and maintenance costs are subject to escalation and therefore netted out. Thus, a tenant would agree to pay a certain rental plus additional amount equal to the escalated cost and taxes. (Fr. Of Confederation! - Loyer net) NON-CONFORMING USE A use of darden review, land, which is not compatible with zoning regulations but may be tolerated with certain restrictions. (Fr. Essay On The Bill Of Rights! - Utilisation non conforme ) OFFER TO LEASE or LET A promise subject to certain conditions specified by the offering party to lease or let real property. If the darden essay, terms of the offer are in law sufficiently complete (i.e. Free Bill! are not deficient in omitting any one of the basic elements required to form a lease, for darden essay, example, the amount and of confederation essay, particulars of payment of rent), then, where accepted, it results in a contract. (Fr. - Offre de location ) OFFER TO PURCHASE/OFFER TO SELL A promise subject to review certain conditions specified by the offering party to purchase or sell real property. If the on helen, offer is complete in specifying the terms and conditions of the purchase or sale then, when accepted it results in a binding contract. in essay, Public Works, where offers to purchase or sell are made, standard offer forms are used.
(Fr. - 0 ffre d'achat ou de vente ) OM COST (Operating and Maintenance) Includes: Fixed expenses realty taxes insurance Variable expenses management superintendent supplies and materials utilities heat site maintenance miscellaneous expenses Repairs and Maintenance Reserves for Replacement. Income, Corporation and a brief on why do i need, Business taxes CCA Debt Service Capital Improvements. (Fr. Review! - Coûts de Fonctionnement et d'entretien (E. et E.)) OPTION A right of choice. On Helen Keller! An agreement, in darden essay, consideration for the payment of a certain sum of money or signed under seal, to hold an offer open for a definite period of time. It is but continuing offer, which is how to a hook sentence argumentative essay merged in contract resulting from acceptance thereof. Essay! If the option is not exercised the payment is forfeited. (Fr. - Option ) OPTION TO PURCHASE Where a party obtains from an which following is not the three persuasive essay, owner (vendor) the exclusive right and opportunity to purchase a property within a certain time at an agreed price and on specified conditions. The option to darden review purchase is most commonly used to protect the price of the property from changing while planning proceeds or approvals are sought.
Generally, a fee is a brief do i ne paid to the vendor for this right. In provinces other than Quebec, the option is not valid unless given for consideration or under seal. Darden Essay Review! In Quebec, the option to purchase is enforceable only against the party that gave it. In other words, it does not run with the land and free essay on the bill of rights, if that owner sells, the subsequent owner is not bound by darden essay the option. The option to purchase is essays on helen keller also found in darden essay, lease purchase agreements. (Fr. - Option d'achat ) OPTION TO RENEW A LEASE The right of the tenant to renew an existing lease at the same or pre-negotiated terms and conditions. (Fr. - Option de renouvellement ) PERCENTAGE LEASE A lease stipulating that a percentage of the critical essay of the story, tenant's gross or net sales, as defined by the lease, will constitute the rent. Darden Review! A minimum rent is usually included although a straight percentage is occasionally encountered. A ceiling rent may also be provided for.
(Fr. - Bail à pourcentage ) PROBATE The act or process of proving a will. The proof is Surrogate Court that the how to sentence, document produced before the Court for official recognition and registration, and alleged to be the last will and testament of a certain deceased person is such in reality. The Certificate issued by the Surrogate Court states that administration of the darden review, deceased's estate has been granted to keller the executor proving the will. (Fr. - Homologation ) PROFORMA A term applied to review a balance sheet or other statement, or an account which contains a) in whole or in how to sentence for an, part assumed figures or other facts, some indication of the character and purpose of the contents of the statement or account and the assumptions on which it is based ordinarily accompanying the use of the phrase; or b) no figures and review, is intended to indicate form, range, descriptions or other characteristics of a proposed presentation. (Fr. - Pro forma ) PROPOSALS An invitation for proposals is an alternative to a tender call where the private sector is a brief essay on why do i ne invited to develop proposals to provide accommodation to the Crown under general conditions with flexible design specifications. Review! For example, the Crown may wish to invite proposals on performance specifications giving the design/build responsibility to the successful proponent. A Brief Essay On Why Ne! An invitation for proposals is usually associated with a Build to lease, Buy back, or Lease purchase arrangement or a development agreement with the Crown sharing in the income. (Fr. - Concours ) PURCHASE The acquisition of land by lawful act. Essay Review! Example: the Crown purchases an existing property and obtains immediate ownership for some financial consideration normally paid in a lump sum. (Fr. How To! - Achat ) QUIET ENJOYMENT A right of a property owner to enjoy his property without interference or fear of claims.
It is one of the five covenants found in a full covenant or warranty deed. The legal wording for this covenant is: That the party of the second part shall quietly enjoy the said premises. (Fr. - Jouissance paisible ) QUIT CLAIM DEED A deed of darden review, conveyance whereby whatever interest the of confederation essay, grantor has in the property described in the deed is conveyed to the grantee without any warranty of darden essay, title. (Fr. Free Essay On The Bill! - Acte de renonciation ) QUIT LEASES PENALTY Where the Crown vacates leased premises and ceases to make rental payments before the review, end of the lease term, the Crown will normally be required to pay a quit lease penalty, which will compensate the constitution and articles of confederation essay, lessor for lost revenue. (Fr. - Indemnité de résiliation ) REAL ESTATE Landed property.
The interest (right), which any one has in lands. In other sense, real estate designates the real property (lands) in essay, which one has a right or ownership; the subject matter of ownership. Real estate and on helen keller, real property may be used synonymously. (Fr. - Bien-fonds ou Propriété foncière ) REAL PROPERTY Land, and generally whatever is erected or growing upon or affixed to darden review land. Also rights issuing out of, annexed to, and exercisable within or about land. The term corresponds very nearly with immovables of the civil law. It is usually synonymous with REAL ESTATE. (Fr. - Bien-fonds ou Propriété foncière ) RENOVATION An approach to essay financially ne rendering existing accommodation functional for a specified need. Review! The Crown calls tenders on complete plans and specifications to renovate an existing improvement on Crown land. How To Write! A construction contract is agreed upon with the essay review, lowest acceptable bidder. (Fr. - Rénovations ) RENT The amount paid for the use of land and a brief financially ne, or improvements.
Synonymous with Rental. (Fr. - Loyer ) RESTRICTION A term or condition, which restricts the essay review, transfer or use of land. A restriction may be statutory or contractual. Restrictions must be written and recorded in order to bind third parties. A zoning ordinance is an example of constitution, a restriction imposed by a municipal authority on the use of property. (Fr. - Restriction ) RETURN ON INVESTMENT Is the net income divided by investment. The term investment is used in three different senses in essay review, financial analysis, thus giving three different return on is not, investment figures: return on assets, return on owner's equity, and return on invested capital.
(Fr. - Rendement du capital investi ) REVERSION The returning of rights in real estate to the grantor, such as the return of the use of real estate to the lessor at the expiration of a lease. The term reversion has two meanings: first, as designating the right (estate) left in the grantor during the continuance of a particular estate; second, the residue left in grantor or his heirs after termination of a particular estate. It differs from a remainder in that it arises by act of the law, whereas a remainder is by act of the darden review, parties. (Fr. - Droit de retour ou Réversion ) REVOLVING FUND A fund from which moneys are continuously expended, replenished and again expended. A fund created by an appropriation or issue of securities for the purpose of providing working capital that is to be replenished through revenues or transfers from users of the fund's facilities. (Fr. - Fonds renouvelable ) RIGHT OF FIRST REFUSAL TO LEASE The right given by the landlord to a party requiring the landlord to offer to lease certain premises at the same rent and essay on the, under the same conditions as have been offered to him by a third party. If the person who has the right of first refusal refuses to darden essay review accept the offer, then the landlord may lease to the third party at that rent and on those conditions, but not any other rent or conditions. (Fr. - Droit de préférence à la location ) RIGHT OF FIRST REFUSAL TO PURCHASE The right given by the owner of real property to a party requiring the owner to offer to how to write sentence for an argumentative essay sell the property to that party at the same price and under the darden review, same conditions as have been offered to the owner by a third party. If the person who has the essays, right of first refusal refuses the offer, then the owner may sell the property to the third party at that price and on those conditions, but not any other price or conditions. (Fr. - Droit de préférence a l'achat ) RIGHT-OF-WAY An easement; the right of passing through the review, property of another. A right-of-way is essay on why do i ne either public or private.
(Fr. - Droit de passage ) RIPARIAN OWNER A person who owns land that is bounded by a waterway such as a river or stream. (Fr. - Riverain ) RIPARIAN RIGHTS The right of an darden review, owner to the use and enjoyment of water which flows across or along his land. It includes a right of an owner of land abutting a body of essay on the, water to make use of the water area for piers, boat houses, for fishing, boating and navigation, and the right of access for essay review, such purposes, which right is limited by public need if on a navigable stream. (Fr. - Riveraineté ) SALE-LEASEBACK An agreement whereby the owner of real property sells the property and enters into essay on why do i ne, a long-term lease with the buyer for the same property. A method of raising investment capital in darden review, the private sector. Under varying terms, the property may be recoverable at the expiration of the on helen keller, lease. (See also Leaseback.) (Fr. Darden Essay Review! - Cession-Bail ) SANDWICH LEASE (see sublease) (Fr. - Voir sous-location ) SERVICES MANAGEMENT REVOLVING FUND (SMRF) A fund created to account for and articles of confederation, all revenues obtained from delivery of a service and for all expenses and expenditures required to manage and provide the service. Useful as a method of determining the darden, worth or value of retaining the service or acquiring the product by other means. (Fr. Free Essay Bill! - Fonds renouvelable des services et de la gestion (F.R.S.G.) ) SINKING FUND A fund in which periodic deposits of essay, equal amounts of constitution and articles, money are made for the purpose of ultimately paying a debt, or replacing assets.
Usually it is darden essay a fund in which is placed equal annual or monthly deposits, which, with compound interest thereon, will accumulate to a predetermined amount at the end of a stated period of time. (Fr. - Fonds d'amortissement ) SUBLEASE An agreement conveying the free essay bill, right of essay review, use and occupancy of a property in which the lessor is the lessee in a prior (main) lease. Often, a sublease involves the subletting (subleasing) of but a portion of the essays on helen keller, premises included in the prime lease. The distinction between a sublease or subletting and an assignment of lease is that an assignment is a transfer of the whole of the tenant's term to the assignee whereas a sublease is a transfer of part only of the darden essay review, tenant's term to which is not one of essay the subtenant. The sublease covenants may differ from essay review those of the main lease. However, the original tenant (lessee) remains liable to his landlord (lessor in the main lease) for the performance of all convenants under the main lease. (Fr. - Sous-location à bail ) TENANCY IN COMMON The holding of property by two or more persons each of whom has an undivided interest which, upon his death, passes to his heirs and not to essays on helen the survivor or survivors.
The heirs become tenants in common with the darden, survivors. The holding of an essay of rights, estate in land by different persons under different titles, but there must be unity of possession and each must have right to occupy the whole in common with his co-tenants. (Fr. - Tenance Commune ) TITLE In real property law, title means the union of essay, all the elements, which constitute ownership; full, independent and fee ownership. (Fr. - Titre ) TORRENS SYSTEM A system of land registration in which the governmental authority issues title certificates covering the ownership of land which tend to of the following one of parts persuasive essay serve as title insurance. In effect, the government guarantees the accuracy of the title as shown on the record. (Fr. - Système Torrens ) TOWNSHIP A territory subdivision that is darden review six miles long, six miles wide, and contains 36 sections each one-mile square. (Fr. - Canton ) TURN-KEY LEASE A lease stipulating that the rent includes all services and the cost of alterations and fitting up carried out by the landlord at which of the following is not the three of a persuasive essay his direction and expense amortized over the period of the lease. (Fr. - Bail clés en mains ) WARRANTY DEED A deed conveying to the grantee title to the property free and clear of all encumbrances, except those specifically set forth in the document.
(Fr. Essay! - Acte Formaliste de Garantie ) ZONING BY-LAW Regulations governing the use and improvement of land. (Fr. - Amortissement ) ANNUAL EQUIVALENT OCCUPANCY COST (A.E.O.C.) The A.E.O.C. is a measure of the critical essay of the of an, cost per rentable unit of occupancy. This cost combines the darden essay review, capital costs of the essays on helen, project amortized over its economic life, interest on essay review, the current land value, and an estimate of first year grants in lieu of taxes, operation and maintenance costs and building management fees. (Fr. - Coût annuel d'occupation ) APPRECIATION An increase in the monetary value of a property. (Fr. - Plus-value ) BREAK-EVEN RENT In the department's Real Estate Investment Analysis System, break-even rent refers to a brief financially ne the first year rent which under forecast market forces (i.e. escalation in rents, escalation in operation and maintenance costs, escalation in taxes and appreciation in property values) will create a revenue stream for the project which when discounted equates to the present value of the cost stream. (Fr. - Loyer-rentabilité ) CAPITALIZATION The process of darden, converting into a present value, a series of anticipated future annual installments of income by discounting them into a present worth at a capitalization rate which is attracting purchase capital to investments with similar characteristics, such as risk and term. (Fr. - Capitalisation ) COST OF ACCOMMODATION (PRESENT VALUE) Present value cost of accommodation refers to the cost stream elements (initial capital, OM, taxes, management and additional downstream costs associated with the project) discounted from constitution and articles essay their date of occurrence back to the planning date minus the revenue stream from the private sector (if any) and the residual property value also discounted back to the planning date. The present value cost of accommodation is used to measure the cost to the Crown of providing the accommodation over the investment horizon and is comparable between alternatives with the same investment horizon. (Fr. - C oût des locaux (valeur actualisée) ) DEFLATION A decrease in the general price level, a period when the purchasing power of money is darden essay rising. (Fr. - Déflation ) DEPRECIATION A loss in building value caused by deterioration and/or obsolescence.
(Fr. - Dépréciation ) DISCOUNT RATE The discount rate is the value an investor places on constitution of confederation essay, his investment dollar, that is, it is an expression of the rate of return he would expect from darden review a project before spending this dollar. An investor's discount rate varies with the type of project, duration of the and articles, investment, risk and the scarcity of darden review, capital. Of Confederation! The only discount rate calculated for the government as a whole is published by the Department of Finance based on government bond rates and darden essay, thus represents the critical story hour, cost of darden, money to the public sector. Which Is Not The Three Basic Parts Essay! The discount rate is the pivotal point of present value and other types of economic analysis in that the investor does not normally accept a project, which does not yield this rate. (Fr. - Taux d'actualisation ) DISCOUNTING The discounting process allows the investor to express the darden, value of project costs and revenues which are spread over time in one common denominator.
This common denominator is referred to as a present value equivalent. The present value equivalent of a brief on why do i need, each item of darden, project costs and revenues is the on the bill, amount which would have to darden be put aside at the planning date compounding at the discount rate to equate to the actual future value of the which is not one of parts of a persuasive essay, cost of revenue item by its date of essay, occurrence. (Fr. For An Argumentative Essay! - Actualisation ) ECONOMIC LIFE The estimated period over which it is anticipated that a property may profitably be utilized. The period over which a property will yield a return on and of the investment, over and above the economic rent due to land. Review! This period can never exceed and generally is shorter than the physical life of the essay need ne, improvements.
(Fr. - Durée économique ) ECONOMIC RENT (MARKET RENT) The reasonable rental expectancy if the property were available for renting at the time of its estimation; the rental warranted to darden be paid in the open real estate market based upon current rentals being paid for comparable space as distinguished from contract rent under an existing lease. (Fr. - Loyer économique (value locative marchande) ) ESCALATION The annual rate of change in the real and nominal value of goods and services. The real change in value pertains to a change in the value of a specific good or service relative to all other goods and services. The nominal change in value pertains to the change in price due to a change in the general price level (inflation or deflation). (Fr. On Helen! - Indexation ) FIXED RENT In the department's Real Estate Investment Analysis System, fixed rent refers to that portion of total contract rent which is fixed for darden essay, a specified lease term and how to write a hook for an argumentative essay, is not subject to annual increases during this term. (Fr. - Loyer fixe ) INFLATION An increase in the general price level, a period when the purchasing power of money is decreasing.
(Fr. - Inflation ) INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN (I.R.R.) The I.R.R. is darden essay review a measure of the annual return on the capital invested in a project. The internal rate of return is an keller, interest rate at which the project's total future earnings discounted from the time they occur to the date of the original capital investment equate to that investment. It may be used to essay determine whether a project is how to essay acceptable or unacceptable by comparing the project's rate of darden essay review, return with the investor's standard. The I.R.R. is given in the following formula: (Fr. - Taux de rendement interne ) INVESTMENT HORIZON The period of do i need financially ne, time over which project costs and revenues are estimated and analyzed. In order to provide a comparison of cost and revenue streams for each accommodation alternative, the department's Real Estate Investment Analysis System discounts costs and revenues over the same investment horizon.
The length of the investment horizon is normally equivalent to darden essay review the shortest economic life among the project alternatives or the length of the constitution of confederation essay, functional requirement, whichever is essay review shorter. Where a project's economic life extends beyond the investment horizon the value remaining in the project is identified through the which of the one of parts essay, inclusion of essay, a residual value. (Fr. - Période de calcul ) NET PRESENT VALUE (N.P.V.) The N.P.V. Essay On The Of Rights! is the result of darden review, subtracting the present value of costs from the present value of revenues and represents the additional profit or cash flow from the project after the investor has recovered his capital and his expected rate of return expressed by his discount rate. How To A Hook Sentence Argumentative! A project yielding a positive N.P.V. is considered to be an darden review, economically attractive investment. (Fr. - Valeuractualisée nette ) OCCUPANCY DATE In the one of parts, department's Real Estate Investment Analysis System, this is the date at review which proposed accommodation solution would be in-service and commence to create revenues. (Fr. - Date d'occupation ) PRESENT VALUE Is the which is not basic parts of a essay, discounted value of aggregate future payments.
(Fr. - Valeur actualisée ) PRESENT VALUE ANALYSIS As conducted within the department's Real Estate Investment Analysis System, present value analysis is a comprehensive method of identifying various measures of economic performance for accommodation alternatives as of the planning date. Essay Review! Project costs and constitution and articles, revenues are discounted to the planning date yielding the following indicators. Present Value Cost of Accommodation Present Value of Revenues Net Present Value Present Value Ratio. (Fr. - Analyse des valeurs actualisées ) PRESENT VALUE RATIO (P.V.R.) The P.V.R. is the ratio of the present value of revenues over the present value of costs. A project with a ratio greater than one yields a rate of return greater than the discount rate, and therefore constitutes an economically acceptable project to the potential investor. (Fr. - Indice de rentabilité ) RESIDUAL VALUE The residual value is the estimated value to darden review the owner remaining in a property at the end of the investment horizon. In the department's Real Estate Investment Analysis System, the residual value facilitates the which following the three parts of a persuasive, fair comparison of investment alternatives with different economic lives (where one alternative may have additional income potential beyond the essay, investment horizon) and varying rates of appreciation in the market place (where one alternative appreciates faster than another and therefore has additional speculative value). (Fr. - Valeur résiduelle ) REVENUES (PRESENT VALUE) The present value of revenues is the discounted value of write essay, aggregate revenue stream attributable to a project. The present value of revenues is used in present value analysis in conjunction with the essay, present value of costs in the derivation of the Net Present Value and Present Value Ratio.
(Fr. On The Of Rights! - Recettes (valeur actualisée ) REQUIREMENT DATE In the department's Real Estate Investment Analysis System, this is the date at which the client requires new accommodation and PSPC assumes responsibility for providing this accommodation. Costs associated with interim accommodation between the requirement date and occupancy date is included in the total cost attributable to review the project. (Fr. - Secteurs auxiliaires) BUILDING SERVICE AREA Those areas that are necessary to the operation of the building, such as main entrance lobbies, public stairs, elevators, boiler and machine rooms, stacks and following basic parts persuasive essay, flues. (Fr. - Aire de Service ) FUNCTIONAL AREA That area within the outside walls measured and darden, computed in keller, the same manner as Rentable Area but excluding Accessory Areas and darden, columns and projections necessary to the building structure which are in excess of four square feet in area (or equivalent expressed in an alternative unit of area). This calculation is utilized only in evaluating lease tender proposals and its use is which of the following one of the three basic of a outlined in the Leased Accommodation Quality Index Point Score Rating System. (Fr. - Aire fonctionnelle ) OUTSIDE GROSS AREA (CONSTRUCTION GROSS) That area measured from the outside surface of the outer building wall to the outside surface of the opposite outer building wall, for the area of each floor without any deductions for darden review, opening, which occur within the floor area. Where balconies and mezzanine floors occur within the exterior walls of the building, the actual area of these is measured and included. (Fr. - Superficie extérieure brute ) RENTABLE FLOOR AREA That area within the outside walls computed by measuring from the inside surface of the outer building wall to the inside surface of the opposite outer building wall, except where the outer building wall consists of 30% or more glass.
In which case, that area is computed by measuring the innermost inside surface of such glass to essay bill of rights the inside surface of the opposite darden review outer building wall or glass whichever is essay financially applicable. The area includes columns and essay review, projections necessary to the building structure but excludes Building Service Area. (Fr. - Superficie louable ) USABLE FLOOR AREA That area within the outside walls measured and computed in the same manner as Rentable Area but excluding common use areas which serve the entire floor or building, known as Accessory Areas. (Fr. - Superficie utilisable ) Date modified: 2017-06-05.
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Darden Essay Question Analysis 2013 …
The Battered Woman's Defense Its History and Future. Twenty years ago I was forced to learn something about battered women in the course of representing a woman who had killed her abusive husband. Darden? Prior to that time I had known women were abused but viewed it as a private or personal injustice. I began to learn during the case that the injustice of abuse by bill, an individual man was a symptom of a pervasive denial of human rights on darden review, a broad scale that made society itself the accomplice of the man who had beaten my client. Since then I have represented a dozen other women who fought back against their abusers and consulted in fifty to a hundred similar cases across the country. Those twelve years have affirmed and sharpened, but not altered, my initial discovery about the root cause of domestic violence. Essential to the existence of domestic violence is the denial of the equality of women in cultures that perceived this denial as both acceptable and lawful. This denial of a brief essay financially ne, equality was the essential cornerstone of men's violence against women and ultimately operated to deny women a fair trial when they were successful in fighting back against the violence. From the essay beginning of time women were seen as inferior to men. Examination of the history of western civilization reveals laws authorizing men's use of violence against women to chastise and control them. In Roman times a husband was permitted to use reasonable physical force, including blackening her eyes or breaking her nose, in disciplining his wife.
The English principle of coverture established that a married woman could not own property free from her husband's claim or control. In fact, women themselves were seen as property. English rape laws considered rape a crime against the husband, father or fianci of the victim. Rape cases were considered properly disposed of if the of the following of a persuasive essay male owner of the victim was compensated for the damage to his property. Marital rape was inconceivable, as wives could not legally refuse their husbands' conjugal rights. A sixteenth century Russian code wisely cautioned husbands not to strike their wives on the face or ear since they would be sorely disadvantaged should the wife become blind, deaf, or otherwise incapacitated. In many parts of Europe a man could kill his wife without penalty well into the 1600's. By contrast, a wife who killed her husband was penalized as if she had committed treason, because her act of homicide was considered analogous to murdering the king. English common law sanctioned wife beating under the infamous rule of thumb, which decreed that a man might use a rod not thicker than his thumb with which to chastise his wife. Oddly enough, this restriction was meant to be a means of protecting wives from over zealous husbands. American states adopted this rule in the early nineteenth century in formal recognition of a husband's right to beat his wife.
By 1910, only 35 out of 46 states had passed reform legislation classifying wife-beating as assault. These legalized injustices documented a societal state of darden essay review, mind not easily erased after being in place for centuries. It is only in the last fifteen years that most states have made it a crime for a man to rape his wife. Some states require physical injury to accompany the rape. Bill? The real legacy of these laws and practices remains in our perceptions of darden review, women and their position in respect to men.
In many parts of our society a woman's wifely duties include sexual submissiveness. It is no surprise that a man authorized to abuse his wife would be the king of the castle and the breadwinner. Women were relegated to of confederation essay, traditional supporting roles of housewife and mother. A generation ago, national magazines featured stories on the corporate wife and darden essay review, her importance in supporting her husband's career. Careers for women were expected to be in teaching and nursing. It was not long ago that a woman could not be found in the boardroom, a police department or construction site. Few women could aspire to be doctors or lawyers or any occupation that might be overly time consuming and interfere with the duties of and articles of confederation essay, being mothers and wives. Also, These professions did not fit the image of darden, a good woman who was passive and submissive. Bound up in these beliefs was the understanding that what happened between a man and a woman behind closed doors was a private family matter. It was behind closed doors that women were regularly abused.
Even though government's fundamental obligation to its citizens is its duty to essays on helen, protect them from harm, an exception existed for the husband who would beat his wife. Only recently have police departments begun to vigorously arrest wife beaters, less out of concern for the women than as a result of lawsuits based on an equal protection claim for a failure to darden review, protect. In this reality, battered women knew that they could expect little protection from the men who beat them. Many of them died as a result but some in the face of impending death fought back and killed their abusers. Then they found a system of justice that prosecuted them with a lightening quickness and efficiency never provided to how to a hook for an argumentative essay, protect them. Not surprisingly the review attitudes that permeated a world in which wife beating was accepted had little tolerance for the woman who fought back. On the how to a hook sentence rare occasions that women were successful in court their defense was premised on the concept of insanity. Darden Essay Review? Perhaps the following is not one of the three of a persuasive essay best known case was that of Francine Hughes whose story was dramatically portrayed in the television movie The Burning Bed televised in 1984. Although seen as a landmark in recognition of the plight of battered women, Ms. Hughes premised her defense on the ground of temporary insanity. That case which was tried in 1977 marked the end of one era and the beginning of another.
Dr. Julie Blackman discussed this transition in her book Intimate Violence. Review? At the time we were in the midst of a feminist movement aimed at equality for women in all aspects of society. A part of of the following is not the three basic parts persuasive essay, this movement focused on an awareness of the plight of battered women and darden, the basic injustice of their situation. In the mid 1970's the first battered women's shelters were opened in the United States and which following one of the three basic persuasive, old ideas about darden review, women in the criminal justice system were challenged. The case of Yvonne Wanrow, decided by the Supreme Court of the State of Washington in 1977, was a pivotal advance for women in self defense cases. Ms.
Wanrow had appealed a murder conviction complaining that the a hook for an trial Court had instructed the darden essay jury on the issue of of confederation essay, self defense using only the masculine gender to explain the circumstances justifying the darden review use of force in self defense. She and how to a hook for an argumentative, her lawyers believed that using the masculine gender implicitly advised the jury to use a male standard in assessing the propriety of a woman's conduct. It seems hard to believe that a major advance encompassed the right of a woman to have her and she substituted for he and darden, him when a jury considered the circumstances in which she used force to defend herself. But, that is exactly what happened. Progressing beyond the reasonable male standard for self defense the debate continues today about what standard to apply. Some suggest a sex-neutral standard taking into account all of the circumstances surrounding the participants at the time of the incident, including individual characteristics and histories of the parties. Both lay and a brief essay on why need ne, expert testimony would be used to explain the darden essay review individual's violence and to on helen, dispel misperceptions about darden essay, intimate violence. A Brief On Why Do I Need Financially? Critics suggest this standard reinforces sexual stereotypes by focusing on essay review, the defendant as an individual woman but calling it sex-neutral. A second alternative advanced is the reasonable woman standard.
Advocates argue a woman's perceptions of danger, harm and force are different from a man's and therefore her reactions when threatened by her husband are significantly different from those of keller, a man in similar circumstances. Accordingly her actions should be judged by a different standard. Detractors of this standard see stereotypes emerging similar to those feared with the use of the review sex-neutral standard, that is . A third approach is the creation of entirely new concept of self defense based on a reasonable battered woman. A major problem with this position is that it may be unconstitutional under an equal protection argument and again may substitute one stereotype for another. How To Sentence For An? My own experience suggests women have gotten the fairest trial in situations where the essay sex-neutral standard was used. Changing the keller beliefs of a society has been much harder than changing the gender of pronouns used to instruct a jury. A number of currents were flowing in this river of justice for women at about the same time. An important component of the struggle for equality involved the effort to have abused women who fought back against their abusers be seen as reasonable in their efforts to survive.
No longer would women go into court and defend themselves in clear cases of self defense by arguing that they were deranged at the time. This was not an easy task. The American vision of self defense had always been cast in the picture of two gunfighters squaring off on a western street. Darden Essay? In such a scenario a woman reasonable or not would always be dead. Violence and its use had always been seen as appropriate in male terms. A good man was ambitious, aggressive and in control. A good woman on the other hand was demure, passive and submissive running contrary to the vision of her in a situation where the use of force was ever a good thing. These perceptions of gender related qualities were a natural extension of stereotypical roles embedded in the psyche of a society resisting the pressure of a women's movement dedicated to the achievement of equality.
Lenore Walker, a psychologist, provided a vehicle to assist women in explaining their experiences in the context of a brief need financially, a criminal trial where the woman's use of force in self defense was an issue. In her book, The Battered Woman, published in 1979, she outlined a theory based on research with battered women relating to the structure of a battering relationship from essay, a prospective of understanding the woman's position. She offered the essay story of an hour battered woman's syndrome to explain why a woman stayed. Essay Review? She described as well the characteristics of these relationships. She suggested that battering relationships had a cycle of on why do i financially, violence consisting of three phases and that women in these relationships often suffered from learned helplessness. Dr. Walker's landmark work described a series of myths associated with battered women and the characteristics of the women themselves.
The myths included beliefs that battering was not widespread, it didn't happen to darden review, middle class white women, that the women were masochists, they could leave at any time and battered women deserved to a brief on why financially ne, get beaten. The women themselves were said to essay review, suffer from low self esteem, have traditional values about relationships, to accept responsibility for the abuse, and believe they were isolated, among other things. Free Essay Bill? The three phases of the repeated cycle of violence consisted of the tension building phase, the acute battering incident and the contrition phase where the batterer showered affection on darden essay review, the women with promises never to repeat the conduct. Later anecdotal information suggests that the contrition phase may disappear over a long period of time replaced by a periods better described as a lull in hostilities. At this time the apologies and remorse that helped keep the essays on helen woman in the relationship are replaced by darden essay review, fear of essays, leaving. The last piece of the battered woman's syndrome was a description of learned helplessness premised on the research of Martin Seligman done during the sixties. Seligman had reported that dogs placed in cages with a divider would jump from one side to the other when the essay side the dog was on was charged with electricity. Then, the which basic parts essay side the dog jumped to was also charged and a shock was administered causing the dog to essay, jump back to the side of the cage he had come from. Thus, both sides of the cage would administer a shock no matter where the dog jumped. There was nowhere the dog could go without receiving a shock. In a short while the dog would no longer attempt to do i financially, jump because it had learned there was nothing it could do to avoid the pain.
The dog would simply lie there. The animal had learned that it was helpless and refused to try to essay, avoid the essay on the bill shock. This principle was applied to battered women in abusive relationships. Repeated beatings like electric shocks seem inescapable. Women, at first, believe they can control the violence by their behavior. Doing what the abuser wants or refraining from conduct that precipitates the violence over time doesn't work. These women come to believe that nothing they do can alter the violence. Essay Review? They become passive and free on the, the ability to essay review, perceive alternatives disappears. Battered Woman's Syndrome became a way to explain the conduct of a woman in a battering relationship who had fought back and killed her abuser. Do I Financially Ne? It argued that a battered woman was a normal reasonable person caught in irrational circumstances responding as any reasonable person would.
For a lawyer handling a woman's self defense case it provided the tools to argue what happened to this woman would happen to anybody under similar circumstances. Battered Woman's Syndrome made the battered woman every woman and therefore a reasonable person who used force in self defense. An apparent contradiction lay in the use of force by darden essay review, someone who suffered from learned helplessness. This was explained as a instinctual response to a survival situation where the threatened violence by the abuser exceeded prior violence levels and was observed by a person acutely aware of changes in the level of violence. This evidence was predicated on scientific theory and could be offered to the jury or judge through the testimony of an expert in free essay bill the area of Battered Woman's Syndrome. Battered Woman's Defense. The confluence of currents in darden essay the social stream of the 70's provided a movement dedicated to equality for women and a body of critical of the hour, research that could explain the experiences of battered women within the concept of reasonableness. Such was the birth of what has become known as the Battered Woman's Defense. This defense is really nothing more than a woman's use of self defense in the context of her experience as a battered woman.
Its advent on the legal scene came at a time when a generation of darden essay, men were threatened with impotence at the thought of a woman having the right to choose a superior position during sexual intercourse. Women were challenging their place in an existing societal order. Constitution Of Confederation? No less traumatic was the understanding that a normal woman could be trapped in an abusive relationship that escalated to a point where the right thing to do was use violence in aid of her survival. Darden Essay? This concept presented images that collided like two speeding trains racing toward each other on the same track. Battered woman's self defense, seemed to free on the bill, be a semantic nd social oxymoron. The same beliefs about sexual stereotypes and prejudices that justified the historical victimization of women denied them their right to defend themselves from it. It is the feminist's catch 22. Essay? The vision of a woman as a victim suggested passivity and helplessness devoid of how to write a hook sentence for an, any power or blemish. God help the woman using self defense who couldn't measure up to image of a helpless heroine with a spotless character. In a world that had been filled with Hollywood scenes of a woman capitulating to love in review the overpowering embrace of the hero who knew better than the heroine what she wanted, the acceptance of woman's control of her destiny was frightening.
Men were born and grew up with the certain constant that they were superior to women. Women in society were the nurturer's, the care-givers not the movers or shakers. It was the way things were meant to be; it was right. Many women grew up being taught--and accepted-- the same beliefs. A woman's violence against a particular man in self defense was seen as a threat to every man and write sentence for an essay, the existing social order. I remember growing up going to Catholic school and hearing the saying that if the nuns had you until you were ten they had their hand on your shoulder the rest of your life.
It was a way of explaining the power of beliefs drilled into you as a child. Darden Essay Review? No less powerful were the repeated messages about the status of men and women. The roles of women and men and the inherent superiority of men permeated every facet of our being from religion to the media to observations of everyday life, not as something bad but as a statement of the natural order which was both right and wholesome. How To Sentence For An Argumentative Essay? The mountain of prejudice we now call sexism built over all of history would not be eroded in a short time. Before a battered woman could fight the darden essay review battle for the hearts and minds of a jury she needed an advocate to critical of the of an hour, present her story. Like a screenplay that needs a good director and the backing of a producer, a battered woman's self defense case needed the vision of a lawyer to structure the case and a judge willing to let it be presented to the jury. An attorney or judge encumbered by essay review, prejudices about battered women would be an unlikely candidate to advance a defense that contradicted fundamental opinions about the existing social order. Even the unbiased might deny the reality of societal prejudice to absolve themselves of any responsibility for the violence these beliefs tolerated.
Obviously the denial of such prejudice renders us powerless to correct an injustice that we cannot admit exists. Too little attention has been paid to the cases of on helen, women that were never presented in court, not because of a biased or ignorant judge but as the product of inaction or ignorance of the essay review attorney charged with her defense. These injustices surface, if at all, as the woman languishes in jail and becomes aware of which of the is not basic parts, what could have been done for her case. There has been considerable confusion by lawyers and judges who believed it was a special defense similar to self defense but not self defense. In many of my cases, prosecutors, defense lawyers and judges would ask me if I was going to use the essay Battered Woman's Defense. A prosecutor would inform the judge that Mr. Dowd is going to use the `Battered Woman's Defense'. Essays? The judge in the position of darden review, someone asked to gaze on the emperor's famous new suit of clothes would respond we will just have to write a hook sentence for an essay, see if he does convinced he was unaware of something he should have known. They talked like it were collateral estoppel or the statute of frauds. It was sometimes seen as a psychiatric defense somewhere between insanity and heat of passion. Really, the truth lies elsewhere.
Like the emperors' clothes, there is no Battered Woman's Defense. Still, good thinking people were misled. Part of the problem was the use of the word syndrome to review, describe the essays keller abused woman reactions to a violent relationship. Syndrome is defined as a group of symptoms that characterize a disease or disorder. I believe it is useful to darden essay, describe Battered Woman's Syndrome as the responses and characteristics of a normal woman who finds herself in a defective or dysfunctional relationship surrounded by the societal realities of life confronting a woman today. A Brief Financially? The major defects are in the relationship, the essay review batterer and the society. Without considerable knowledge of the subject it is easy to of confederation, conclude that Battered Woman's Syndrome describes a disorder or disease of the woman resulting from abuse and causing her to remain in a battering relationship. Darden Essay Review? In this construct the woman stays because the and articles essay abuse impairs a rational decision to leave or she suffers some from pre existing defect. It is very hard to build a self-defense case grounded in reasonableness when the woman's prior decisions reflect an absence of quality. For people on all sides of the question, the descriptive word syndrome has provoked debate, concern and misunderstanding. Most would prefer it hadn't been used but the confusion resulting from a descriptive name change, at this time, would exacerbate the problem.
Feminist concerns focused on the fear that the apparent contradictions inherent in the word syndrome would label battered women as abnormal people. This perception necessarily absolved society of any responsibility and placed the blame on the victim. Judges have ordered psychiatric examinations of women claiming to use expert testimony on darden essay, Battered Woman's Syndrome in the mistaken belief that a form of free on the of rights, insanity defense was imminent. The essence of the error was the search for darden medical pathology in the disease of an intimate relationship better dealt with by the social sciences than medicine. This is not to say that battered women may not suffer from how to sentence for an argumentative, some form of mental disorder as a result of the continual violence. Maladies like post traumatic stress disorder may be present giving rise to essay, an insanity defense or some form of write for an argumentative essay, mitigating psychiatric defense such as extreme emotional disturbance. One of the problems in interposing a form of darden essay review, insanity defense involves the potential of having the burden of proof on this issue. Another difficulty can be the prosecution's right to a psychiatric examination of the woman where there is a mitigating or exculpating psychiatric defense. Some of the responsibility for the confusion must be laid at the door of the defense lawyers in their inaccurate presentation of the expert testimony in aid of the how to a hook sentence for an essay defense of a battered woman. Defense lawyers found themselves with a source of essay, expert testimony that their adversaries and judges seldom understood. Too often they seized on this lack of knowledge as a means of extending the evidence beyond its potential.
This resulted in constitution and articles of confederation chaotic rulings by darden review, trial courts left to critical story hour, be sorted out by essay, appellate courts. I believe the proper use of Battered Woman's Syndrome assists the fact finder to understand the state of mind of the battered woman at the time she fought back against how to write a hook essay, her abuser. It does this by dispelling myths and essay, misperceptions about battered women, explains the woman's inability to constitution of confederation essay, escape the battering relationship and darden, provides an understanding of the essay circumstances creating a reality-based perception requiring the use of reasonable and necessary deadly force in order to defend herself. Such evidence does this in the same way a history of prior violence and abuse bears on the state of darden essay review, mind. The expert explains to the jury the myths and misconceptions about abused women and their batterers and essay on why do i need ne, then charts the characteristics of a battering relationship that identifies Battered Woman's Syndrome such as the cycle of violence and darden essay review, learned helplessness. These concepts have been previously discussed. The expert when discussing learned helplessness can start to explain the numerous real factors facing a battered woman who seeks a way out of the relationship. The real barriers facing a woman trying to escape a battering relationship contribute to a sense of helplessness and at the same time explain why she doesn't leave. Things like the poor performance of police and the courts in protecting women, the lack of which of the following is not basic persuasive essay, space in battered women's shelters, the likelihood of increased violence when a woman attempts to leave, the financial hardship a woman faces when leaving all make escape difficult and dangerous. These factors together with evidence of the prior violence of the abuser are part of a woman's state of mind whichis critical to her defense.
The facts contributing to a belief by the woman that she is helpless to control the violence, stop it or successfully flee are not products of defective or delusional thinking. Crucial handicaps for women in essay review self defense cases have been their apparent use of excessive force in response to free essay bill, a threat or assault and the timeliness of their response to a threat of harm or actual harm. In some cases it is the darden review use of a knife or gun in response to an unarmed attack or the woman's use of force after a threat of death with no assault. Another criticism of the law of self defense is essays on helen keller, that it presumes a first-time meeting between the participants. In most jurisdictions, the force or threat by the abuser must be imminent.
The word imminent refers to a non specific period of time: it can be an immediate threat or something that could happen at essay any time. The case where the woman shoots a sleeping man or one with his back turned has not appeared to meet the of the one of the three basic of a persuasive essay criterion of imminence. In an appropriate case, the darden testimony of the battered woman about the essays keller abuse over darden review a period of time, her belief that she could not escape her abuser in any real way, together with the expert testimony about the reality of these beliefs provides a context that fits a test of imminence, grounded in following is not one of basic of a her experience even if the darden essay man's back was turned or she was responding to an unarmed assault. Constitution And Articles? If a hostage, like Terry Anderson, was told he would be killed the next day, we would applaud the strangling of a sleeping guard in an effort to escape. We would accept his perception gained over time that the threat was real. Those circumstances certainly meet any test of imminence and justify the use of whatever force it took to be free.
I have represented women whose lives in darden essay homes with abusive men were as dangerous and hopeless as living in a cell in which essay Beirut being guarded by darden essay, terrorists. These women's knowledge of their captors makes them the best able to assess the threat. Their perception of limited options is not delusional. They may indeed learn to be helpless but this helplessness is produced by the realities of their daily existence and not some distorted by product of violence. Why can't lawyers, judges and juries equate the experiences of the battered woman with those of the hostage or prisoner?
Our daily news is spotted with reports of a brief do i ne, women murdered clutching orders of darden, protection or fleeing like fugitives from men in relentless pursuit. Bill? I have remarked to many in recent years that a battered woman's self defense case is harder today to win than it was in the early nineteen eighties. The increase in media attention over the last few years generated an assumption that the problem was fast being solved. Again, the reality is review, markedly different. The increased public awareness informs the bigot as well as the enlightened. Those in the past that responded to the case of a battered woman with crass prejudice now pretend to accept the premise of battered woman's self defense and the necessary expert testimony accompanying it, but structure their opposition to the issue in the assertion that the woman in question doesn't fit the mold. It has given rise to distinctions between good and bad battered women. The good battered woman conforms to age old stereotypes of women as passive, loyal housewives living lives as loyal and loving companions of their abuser. This woman must be without any flaw in her character and must continually appeal to the police and courts for help regardless of its futility. The bad battered woman is one who fails to possess any of the virtues of the good battered woman. She may have obtained an education and pursued a career.
Such a demonstration of control of her life will operate to disqualify her from the group. Infidelity or abuse of critical story hour, drugs is equally dangerous. I represented a woman in 1984, in Queens County, who had shot her abusive husband. Duringthe course of the trial the prosecutor tried to introduce evidence that my client was a sloppy house keeper, didn't toilet-train her children and had an essay review affair. The judge permitted the testimony and instructed the free jury this was evidence demonstrating what she had done to provoke her husband to beat her.
The prosecutor in that case was a woman. Both judge and prosecutor claimed to be sympathetic to battered women, but my client didn't fit the mold. The frontal assault on darden, the issue of battered women as victims of constitution and articles of confederation essay, injustice has been replaced by essay, an individual disqualification from the group. The new rallying cry of the write argumentative essay bigot spawned in the darkness of ignorance is that we all know and darden essay, accept the injustices done to women and the need to recognize the of the following one of basic of a essay right of battered women to darden, fight back against their abusers, but this particular woman was not in such a position. The wolves are indeed in and articles essay sheeps clothing. It is darden, not very different from the fourteen stalwarts of the argumentative essay United States Senate proclaiming their sensitivity to sexual harassment during the Clarence Thomas confirmation hearings. The sensitive Senators abhorred sexual harassment in general; they just couldn't find any when they looked for essay review it. A Moving Target. The struggle today for acceptance of the essay right of a battered woman to defend herself against her abuser and then receive a fair hearing in the system that prosecutes her has shifted from a fight to essay, get in the door to a battle over a particular woman's presence as an appropriate resident. The rationale for the exclusion has remained the essays keller same while the arguments have changed. The perceived need to camouflage the prejudice makes it all the more difficult to detect.
This semantic shift by the sexist also causes a misconception of progress. In its simplest form, the reduction of openly sexist positions and increased media attention obscure the continuing magnitude of the problem. These two factors are by no means operating in concert. The media's prolonged examination of domestic violence is either a reflection of heightened awareness or a precursor of public arousal depending on one's view of the press. Whatever the perspective, it does appear that this exposure and other hard-fought advances by women will begin to change the prospects for equality.
Here, once again, a fundamental premise of this essay resurfaces. The long held beliefs in darden review the inequality of women remain strong and resistant to change. The ripple of progress made for battered women in the courtroom with a defense tailored to reflect the experiences of the women still has not eroded internal societal prejudices. In the late seventies and early eighties the on helen prejudices would be expressed in darden essay review a much more forthright manner making the arguments more direct. Now the job of ferreting out bias and prejudice is much more difficult. Beyond the pale of prejudice, in on helen keller the community of decent people, the awful truth of our indifference and inability to quell the tide of darden review, violence against women is often too horrific to accept. The reality of life for a battered women is critical of the of an, indeed beyond the knowledge of the average person. Expert testimony is needed. The recognition of the darden truth entails an which of the one of persuasive acceptance of responsibility for the violence among us. Denying the truth of the essay review woman's story can be easier than dealing with it. There does seem to essay on the bill, be a backlash against darden essay, the rights of essay story of an hour, women as described by Susan Faludi in her book by the same name.
It has been a reflected vision in essay review the eyes of battered women who have been left unprotected by how to write sentence essay, a society that refused to protect them. When these women chose life over death the organs of government that had failed to protect them prosecuted them with a vigor and speed reserved for darden review serial murderers. On Helen Keller? All too often those in the legal profession did not know enough or care enough to defend them. The heart and soul of the battered women's movement was and darden essay review, is the people who established the shelters for women in abusive relationships. They remain undaunted in essay do i need ne their pursuit of equality and an end to the violence. For all they have been able to review, do in providing a safe haven, there remains a serious gap in the services battered women need when seeking to escape a battering relationship or having survived after fighting back against their abusers.
The lack of adequate representation of battered women in the courts is at crisis levels. Solving this problem is a fundamental goal of the newly established Pace University Woman's Justice Center. This institution, formed in October 1991, was a partnership between the State of New York and Pace University. In the last few years, the how to argumentative Center functions as a part of Pace University. This Center has trained lawyers to represent battered women in review criminal and civil cases. It will also offer training to prosecutors in the prosecution of abusers.
For the battered women in jail, those the system has already failed, the Center is working to provide them assistance in how to write a hook argumentative essay the preparation of petitions for clemency. Essay? It was the first Center at free on the bill of rights a major university in collaboration with government dedicated to darden review, the eradication of a problem with us since the constitution of confederation essay dawn of history. Already men and women are coming forward to take the training but also volunteering to work at the Center toward the goals of equality and an end to the violence. All ages are represented but most of the volunteers are represented by the generation growing up in the wake of the decade of self gratification represented by the eighties. These young people have watched a generation beset by greed and materiality flounder in darden review the emptiness of the experience. They are dedicated to filling their lives with the richness of and articles essay, work that will benefit others.
For them it is enough to review, try. Perhaps, many years after Bob Dylan told us it would happen, the times they are a changing.
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5 key steps for darden the job interview. One cannot live long in Hong Kong without encountering the high standards and impeccable service at keller, all Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group (MOHG) properties in review, some way—be it at the fantastically located Excelsior, the chic Landmark or the flagship Mandarin. The company personified what I thought hospitality could and should be. Furthermore, it was based in my home city, and had a number of international outposts at which I could pursue new experiences and opportunities. As I began to think about where I wanted to essays on helen work, it quickly jumped to the top of my list.
After my previously unsuccessful attempts at submitting resumes online, I realized that doing the same on MOHG’s website probably would be less than fruitful. Darden Essay Review. It might work if you have the appropriate background, but my lack of a bachelor’s degree in hospitality was proving a major obstacle. There had to be another way … Sometimes, it is sheer serendipity. During the summer of 2009, I attended an alumni event at my high school. It was good to have the opportunity to reconnect with old schoolmates and a brief on why need financially ne, find out what everyone was up to. There were also alumni parents in darden essay, attendance, and essay do i financially ne, along the lines of leaving no stone unturned, I asked my school’s alumni coordinator if there were any guests that evening that happened to be in the hospitality industry. Imagine my surprise when she said that they were expecting a gentleman that evening who, at the time, was MOHG’s CFO in Hong Kong. He was not able to come at darden essay review, the last moment, unfortunately. Critical Essay. The alumni coordinator, however, very kindly offered to help set up a meeting. Review. I met this gentleman shortly thereafter.
Landing that initial face-to-face meeting showed me how critical networking is while on the career hunt. You might think, “I don’t really know anyone.” Really? Go ahead and start listing everybody you know: friends, family, classmates, neighbors, Facebook contacts. Your list most likely has more than 100 names. Even if your real estate professor can’t give you a job, he might know someone in industry who is willing to talk to you. Get involved with organizations in your particular field of interest. You just might meet somebody who can give you a lead. And Articles Of Confederation Essay. MOHG’s then-CFO didn’t offer me a job during our meeting.
Nor did I expect him to. I had only recently finished my junior year of college and darden review, had yet to graduate. However, I was sure to e-mail him during my senior year to ask if there were any opportunities with the of the, group. There was no immediate response, but two weeks later, the company’s director of HR e-mailed me to say he was aware of my interest in working at the MOHG and review, wanted to of the the three of a schedule a call to discuss my career. I was somewhat daunted by the idea of this first phone interview. It seemed difficult enough communicating my enthusiasm and thoughts face to darden review face. Would it be even worse through a telephone line? For many, phone interviews can be more difficult than in-person interviews—but they don’t have to essays on helen be. Darden Review. Remember these 5 key steps: Find a quiet location where you won’t be disturbed. Some people say that it’s better to use a landline, but a cell phone works if you have a strong connection. Resist the urge to of the prepare a script and read from your answers.
However, it’s appropriate to have your resume and darden essay, a few notes in sentence argumentative essay, front of you. A good technique to sound more confident is to stand up while on the phone. Don’t forget to review smile! While your interviewer can’t see you, she’ll be able to “hear” if you’re frowning. Be relaxed and calm. Speak slowly. Essay On The. Enunciate your words and essay review, your interviewer will appreciate your efforts. I quelled my interview anxieties by telling myself that it was not the end of the world even if it didn’t work out. As Alexander Graham Bell once said, “When one door closes another door opens; but we so often look so long and write sentence argumentative, so regretfully upon the closed door, that we do not see the essay review, ones which open for us.” I sat down and thought about all the questions I could possibly be asked. Coming from a non-hospitality background, I knew I would be asked once more about my interest in the industry. And indeed I was.
During our conversation, we talked about compensation in hospitality. Essays On Helen Keller. Compared to other industries—banking and law, for instance—hospitality doesn’t pay much in the early stages of one’s career. I remember being told before that someone might make partner at a law firm or managing director at an investment bank much faster than being promoted to a GM at a hotel. In response, I emphasized that my main priority was being able to darden review learn as much as possible. Before wrapping up the conversation, I mentioned to MOHG’s director of HR that I would be coming back to Hong Kong for constitution and articles essay spring break that year and was wondering if he would be available to darden essay meet. He responded positively and said to get in touch with him closer to the date. All these thoughts were running through my mind.
Could this be the company that I start my career with? Andrew is a trainee in Rooms Division at Mandarin Oriental Hyde Park, London. A recent graduate of Stanford University, he majored in International Relations and minored in Economics. Despite not having gone to essay on why financially ne hotel school, Andrew has a real love for travel and hospitality. Feel free to contact him at email@example.com.
Andrew is currently a project manager in Brands with Langham Hospitality Group in Hong Kong. A Stanford graduate, he also holds a MSc in darden essay review, Real Estate Development from a brief need ne Columbia University. Despite not having gone to hotel school, Andrew has a real love for travel and hospitality. Review. He was previously a research analyst for critical essay of the story hour a leading hospitality consultancy and review, worked in operations for luxury hotel groups in London and Hong Kong.
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essay family values . the new laws gave the impression that dependency is somehow degrading. Hmm. American values. freedom, self-sufficiency, independence, emotional strength. Essay! It may be that we, as Americans, do not depend on each other enough, but within the confines of on helen keller, marriage, I do not doubt that years upon years upon years of dependency on a man would be degrading. As a woman, and as a woman who does not have anything against essay the institution of do i ne, marriage in general, I could never live with myself. For family members to attain an ideal level of wellness, evaluating and providing family health care is fundamental. Concept of Family Friedman, Bowden, and darden, Jones (2003) have provided five ways, or concepts, how family nursing is conceptualized. Family as context, family as sum of its members, family subsystem as client, family as client, and family as a component of society are methods in which family nursing is perceived. In my position as a faculty member for Associate’s in Science, Nursing. The Effects of constitution of confederation essay, Cultural Values on the Family Essay.
“A transformation in attitudes toward family behaviors also occurred. People became more accepting of darden essay review, divorce, cohabitation, and sex outside marriage; less sure about the universality and permanence of marriage; and more tolerant of critical essay of the of an, blurred gender roles and of mothers working outside the home. Essay! Society became more open-minded about free essay bill, a variety of living arrangements, family configurations, and lifestyles.” (Bianchi) If one looks back even further in history to darden essay review the beginning of the nineteenth century. Family Values in Don DeLillo#x27;s White Noise Essay. Technology, as a modern institution, places a literal wall between members of the family by the arrival of this gaseous, daunting smog. Jack watches Heinrich in wonderment; his own son has completely transformed himself into the tour guide, the omnipotent master of Nyodene D. knowledge. The cloud has affected him to such a point that his own family cannot recognize him from the young boy who maintains a chess match with a convicted killer. Jack recognizes this change when he comments, I didn't. It taught me things such as Self control and virtue which is very important, you have to be dedicated to your school work or you will fail, Punctuality, being on time for attendance and tasks are a big part of college, Accomplishment, taught me to finish what I start and to on helen keller not give up if it gets hard just try harder, Cooperation, to participate in review, class, Dependability, you have to how to write argumentative essay be reliable and trustworthy especially to take online classes, Diligence, attentiveness; persistence; perseverance. Confession of essay review, a Former Drug Addict: Learning the Value of Family.
But not just him alone, his younger brother was to a hook sentence for an be expelled along with him. Sure the younger brother wasn’t exactly the good obedient student, had been seen around Kong, caused some mischief and playful enough to review skip school occasionally. But he never crossed the line or got involved with Kong’s unlawful activities. A Brief Essay Need Financially! Still, the school found these reasons enough to get the siblings off their ground permanently. “The principal felt that because he’s my younger brother, he’s nature is darden essay, surely as bad. Upcycle and critical essay of the hour, how you can upcycle almost anything. Darden Essay! Economic Values My main economic value is profitability, and from what we learned in class you actually make more money by going green and upcycling.
The USPS is an example of that. Also I value taking the lead because if my company goes green it will be an example that others’ can do the same and will benefit each company economically but also the environment. Environmental What I value most is being mindful of the resources I use. Essays On Helen! That every time. Value of darden essay review, Aem and Its Equity Value Essay. free cash flow at a growth rate of 4%. Acker propose a proper terminal value formula for essay story AEM, which is essay review, expressed as follows: Where: NOPLATPA2008 = Net Operating Profit Less Adjusted Taxes plus Amortization (line13, column 7 in table 1) g = growth rate of NOPLATPA K = weighted average cost of capital (year 7, line16, column 7 in table 1) Step 4. Calculate Enterprise value and equity value To arrive at a total value of AEM, a simple method is discounting free cash flow listed below at corresponding. return back home to visit should not be called a return, but merely a passing by. By changing from “Dee” to “Wangero”, it is as if she has never existed in which following is not the three parts of a persuasive essay, the first place. Darden Essay! Another similarity I found is a bit complex, but also relates to a sense of free essay on the bill, family.
It occurs when Dee says, “I couldn’t bear it any longer, being named after the people who oppress me.” (280). Darden Review! This means that Dee feels she is being held back from her culture not being named something more close to what her background is and that. case scenario, a young rich blonde girl of a wealthy known family becomes kidnapped on the same day as a daughter of a drug addict in the projects, who would have more publicity in the search for their return? The blonde girl’s family has more money; therefore, can afford to following is not one of basic parts persuasive pay their way to more publicity time, bestowing more value on her life. It is not something that you think of everyday, or is easily realized, but our society holds value on our life only through the materialistic things.
Essay on darden essay Book Critique Family to Family. In the hour, final chapter of the book, the writers detail the importance of Biblical based evangelism for all of those persons involved in the family unit. The writers advocate what they call the FIRM approach to evangelism, which involves: F - ask about family, I - ask about their interests-listen, R - ask about religion-listen, and M - share the message (114-115). Review! Lastly, the essay of the story, writers provide some practical methods for sharing the Gospel, which include some scripture memorization and tips on a salvation-testimony. children. This one is correct, because 97% of AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children, the essay review, federal welfare program) is made up of women and children. Young women? Not really-the average age of a mother receivingwelfare is 29, and only 7.6% are under the age of 20.
Is she black? Maybe, because the composition of the essays on helen keller, welfare roles is about the same percentage black and white. Essay! More kids than she can count? The average welfare family has 2.9 members. That means a single mom would have 1.9 children. |they would want to be treated.
Being |respectful nonjudgmental and professional |humanistic and non- judgmental. I try to | |respectful, kind and nonjudgmental toward |with the patient and his or her family. |never make preconceive ideas about people | |coworkers, our families, visitors and |When a nurse is assessing the patient he or|before knowing the essay story of an, whole truth about a | |patients. Also being respectful to their |she cannot jump to conclusions about |situation. The concept of the review, lifetime value of a customer is well established in the theory and practice of database marketing. The lifetime value of a Customer, defined to a hook for an argumentative essay be the expected present value of the net cash flows from the firm’s relationship with the essay, customer over his or her lifetime, is often used as an upper limit on spending to acquire the customer. If the which of the following essay, expected cash flows from the relationship with the acquired customer have a present value of $100, then the darden essay review, firm should spend no more than. nowadays due to the teachings of which of the is not one of parts of a persuasive, back then.
We should value the fact that we can read and write for essay review many people in essay of an hour, other countries aren’t able to do so, and what I value more is that I am able to communicate through more than one language, giving me an essay review, advantage in life. If I never learned Chinese, I would’ve never been able to understand the true meanings of the literature. I am very grateful of what I have learned throughout the years and essay do i need financially, I value all these traits that I possess. Memories only darden essay review, come. would be neglecting the possibilities of the constitution and articles of confederation essay, mind.
However, the essay review, value of philosophy for society at large is how to a hook argumentative, limited by self-assertion. The masses will find themselves looking for knowledge but being blocked by the view that the world is of less worth than themselves, or the Self. This will be the downfall of the instinctive man; he is contained in his private interests. It is review, almost like a trap, man fills his life with family and friends and believes that he has found his place in life. A. The Family as an Agent of Socialization Essay. norms became less important and impacted the structure of the nuclear family. More couples are getting divorced, than they were decades ago, when the belief of a brief essay need financially ne, society was to frown upon divorce. Then they were same sex marriages that have become part of the accepted norm, unlike decades prior.
There are many other factors that contribute to darden the change in views and beliefs, replacing what was the responsibility of the on why need, family. This is especially true in this 21st century technological era; we are. Essay on Television Family Review. Ultimately, after a few arguments, brake ups and misunderstandings, the daughter and boyfriend were back together and the son kept his tutor as a result of the sister giving in to help family. Laughter is always used to bring the family together for a prank on an individual member or when someone is having a bad day, or not physically feeling well. Negative influences the show has are the way the darden, mother is always putting someone down in a subtle way by dressing it up with sarcasm, expression. Though I cannot speak for write sentence essay other families, I can cite my own family life as being part of the reason for the problems that I work through today. As Ehrenreicht says the darden review, Family is the place where we go for comfort and to a brief essay on why do i need relax, but it is that very notion of review, family being a safe haven makes it all that much worse when problems inevitably arise. The popularity of essay on why financially ne, therapy groups that Ehrenreicht refers to really show that there is a major problem with our ideas about family.
Knowing that there is a problem. understanding families in this model, and that it can be used as a prevention and intervention model when dealing with family systems. I think this model is quite similar with Adlerian assumptions because the use of techniques such as engagement and motivation establishes a family-focused perception of the presenting problem that serves to increase the family members hope and expectation of change, decrease resistance, improve alliance with one another and create greater trust between family and therapist. story that widely influenced many people. This is the story of The Odyssey.
There are many relationships in this story that influence, or that show other people in the way in essay review, which they should act. A Brief On Why Do I Need Financially Ne! Many noble men of that time were looked upon by many families, to show there youth the way in which they should be. Noble men were looked up to, leaders of their time, role models if you will. I believe the most interesting relationship in The Odyssey is the father-son relationship between Odysseus and Telemachus. Essay on Sociological Theories and the Family.
to define the darden essay review, family, each person fills specific roles formed by factors such as economic positions, cultural and social structures, and political roles to essay of the keep the overall ‘organism’ running. The father is viewed as the head of the family in a patriarchal society and usually provides the major economic support for the family while also enforcing family and society’s structure. The mother provides emotional support to her husband and reinforces his dominant role within the family. She has more. employee respect she also gained employee trust. She allows the essay, employees to be a part of a family environment that lends to the atmosphere of the essay bill, store (Apollo Group, 2004). When employees are made to feel like they are an important part of anything their performance will be better.
Employees have an opportunity to become a part of a greater experience. I am much like kathy because I believe in the value of people and what they have to offer. I believe that everyone deserves a chance to essay excell. that symbolized their family background. While they both seek to keep traditions alive, it is also apparent by do i need, their actions that pursues these values from a selfish perspective, while the other’s ambitions are more genuine.
Dee’s voice is essay, being explored with a multiplicity of vocality and a divergence that represents what it means to be young. Yet she can be criticized because her freedom extends to only her and essay on why do i need, little else. She does not see herself as connected to the family, a unit that sacrifices. discussed about this time period. Her parents came from India to help her through those tough times. Values and darden review, Health Perception “Health perception and values are focused on the individual’s perception of their health, beliefs, and critical, values” (Edelman, Kudzma Mandle, 2014). Mrs. Darden Essay Review! John’s family is a very religious and disciplined family. The children are taught how to respect others. They value the formal education of the and articles, children, as well as their spiritual education. They always eat together at.
Individualism as an American Cultural Value Essay. This has led to essay the disintegration of many relationships in the American culture. It also displays the on helen keller, selfish nature which this “value” of individuality has fostered in Americans; most concern is only with oneself. The rearing of children within the darden essay review, two cultures also differs immensely. Free Bill Of Rights! Thai children for example, are treated very differently from their American counterparts. Within American culture, children are taught to function as individuals from the start. If a child falls American parents. From their prospective the value is the historically modest dividend and the long range growth of the business. Given their approximation of a share price of $54,000 that would suggest they excluded Masco as an outlier if they used a multiples approach and they used a discount of nearly 65% on the value of the darden essay review, shares to address their limitations noted previously. This would yield a value of roughly $58,000 per share. The dissenting Kohler shareholders, many of whom acquired shares for north.
Values can change by either a significant emotional event or a profound dissatisfaction. The first way is by a traumatic event that changes our views, for example, watching a friend get harassed by police could change your view of police and lead to losing respect for police. Profound dissatisfaction caused by persistent dissatisfaction with an event that changes how you feel (Whisenand McCain, 2014). What values do for and to us? Values tell us about who we are as people. They act as filters. Honor is holding each value close to essays the heart and living them daily.
I would refer to one that honored as one would has self-discipline. It is a means of respect to my entire chain of command, the unit, and fellow comrades. Darden Review! It shows that one will not allow themselves or anyone else be beaten by fears and to overcome obstacles. Integrity means doing what is right no matter the on the of rights, situation. Essay Review! To have integrity is to trust your instincts to do the right thing morally and legally.
I like to is not one of the three basic of a refer to integrity. our achievements, and our failures” (p. 365). Self-defeating narratives and negative stories can frequently be constructed by families about their lives in as a means to justify why they are unable to accomplish things in darden review, a different manner. Bill! Change cannot take place without the client first being able to darden essay review consider alternatives way of free essay bill of rights, examining assumptions, values and meanings of life experiences that dominate their vantage points self and their problems (Goldenberg Goldenberg, 2008). would be very hard to review value. On Helen Keller! 4. Is it possible to quantify the value of potentially adding the darden essay review, Japanese technology to essays on helen keller the Merseyside project?
Discuss what the economic impact is from this investment flexibility. It is possible to quantify the value of being able to add in darden essay review, the technology at a later date. Though it might be hard to give an exact number, but since the Merseyside project has a much faster payback period and constitution of confederation, more free cash flow early on, this is a value added to the Merseyside. (Nagrecha, 2002). An important part of schedule control is to decide if the schedule requires corrective action. Variance reporting is deficient in this regard because of the timing of the darden essay, report. A better method uses earned value analysis. Critical Story! The “concept of earned value combines cost reporting and essay review, aggregate performance reporting into which basic parts of a persuasive one comprehensive chart” or measurement document (Meredith, 2009, p. 452). This can be an invaluable “early warning tool, allowing a project manager to identify and. Employment and essay review, Personal Values Essays.
of personal values conflicting with business values for me occurs on an almost daily basis with a co-worker. Essays Keller! This person plays Christian music loudly at review, her cubicle throughout the day. Personally, I do not have a problem with the Christian music. In fact, I listen to a Christian radio station in my vehicle constantly. Essays On Helen Keller! However, I do not agree that the workplace is the review, best place to how to write a hook argumentative play this music. We see a variety of customers throughout the day who have different beliefs and values than we do. The values of a professional group develop through consensus and are expected to be held by members of the group. P Fry Johnson (2002) stated that professional values are made explicit in a code of ethics, a code of conduct, or other formal statements that establishes and make public the standards of a professional group. In 1953 the Internal Council of Nursing was established and darden essay, congress accepted the code of Ethics for nurses worldwide. The nurses’ code of ethics is a set of core nurses.
unnecessary expenses. The Difference between CSR and CSV According to Porter and Kramer ‘s definition of shared value, it can be defined as policies and operating practices that enhance the competitiveness of a company while simultaneously advancing the economic and social conditions in the communities in which it operates. Shared value is created through combining the creation of economic value and serving social needs. In the article, Porter and Kramer try to distinct CSV from CSR in critical essay hour, certain aspects. She was able to essay review make a down payment equal to 25% of the constitution of confederation essay, value of the house; the balance was mortgaged. The rate quoted by the bank is darden essay, 10% compounded semi-annually. A Brief Essay Do I! The mortgage has a 20 year amortization period (this means that payments are calculated assuming it will take 20 years to pay off the loan). a) If the payments are made monthly, what will be the size of the payments? b) What will be the balance remaining on the mortgage after 5 years? 9) A firm wants to essay open a new gold mine in the Northwest. investors.
Some investors may look for low price value stocks and critical story of an, hope to increase their stock value. Both Growth and Value stock have investment risk. Because of the market conditions, the return and original value of stocks fluctuate. Investors and financial managers have to understand the market conditions carefully, as the growth and value stocks tend to run in cycle. Even though both Growth and Value stock investments have risk associated with them, value type investments earned more investors than. and (c) lies at the heart of widespread interpretations of neurophysiological and neuroimaging data. I show the roles played by value-based predictions in reinforcement learning and indicate how different psychological and neurobiological ideas about decision making map onto roughly equivalent reinforcement learning notions. Thereafter, I describe four different value systems and four different decision-making systems that arise naturally within this framework. Two. Essay on review Women and which of the following the three of a essay, the Family in Chinese History. her book: Women and essay, the Family in Chinese History, Patricia Buckley Ebrey talks about a brief essay do i need financially, these topics: foot binding and concubines.
She emphasizes on Westerners view on Chinese women. She brings up issues on important matters such as: gender distinctions, pain imposed on children due to foot binding and wives and daughters of good families which are sold into darden review concubinage. In the Chinese culture, the family is seen as the foundation of the society. The core values of the family are the a brief essay need financially ne, basis of a. Those who understand its true value and what it brings to them cherish it. Othello is a respected man in society with “what conjuration, and what mighty magic…[he] won his daughter” (1.3.109-111) Showing its value amongst classes in a society, people of a higher class have a much prestigious reputation than those of a lower class. Nevertheless, reputation is not simply found, but developed over the years through their actions, viewpoints and judgments of others. Reputation is not always correctly. Essay on Value of Digital Privacy. hand, this would be a disadvantage to applicants who may not have the opportunity to sell themselves in an interview if they never even make it to that point.
Another advantage would be the ability to find and locate family and friends. There are countless stories about family members or old friends being reunited after years of being apart. Any of these sites. American Family and darden review, Traditions Essay. 2. Of Confederation Essay! CHAPTER 1: The American Family 2.1 A Definition of the Family Family is darden essay review, forever. Family is comfortable, fun, loyal. It is the free on the of rights, most important thing for every American. Family is the one place on earth where we should always find forgiveness, understanding, happiness and darden essay, a lot of love.
This does not mean that the family should encourage or aid unethical behavior of write a hook for an argumentative essay, one of its family members. Love, support, tolerance and caring must always be the basis for the relationship. beginning of Period 2, and so forth. Principles of Finance 5e, 9 The Time Value of essay, Money © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in a brief on why do i financially ne, whole or in darden essay, part. 5 Future Value The amount to which a cash flow or series of cash flows will grow over a period of time when compounded at a given interest rate. Principles of following of a persuasive, Finance 5e, 9 The Time Value of Money © 2012 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned. companiesuses various information technologies in order to have a competitive advantage. 3.1 Netflix Value chain model. As earlier stated value chain analysis refers to darden essay the activities that are geared towards obtaining a competitive advantage in an organization. Value chain analysis is mainly composed of two major parts; the primary activities and the support activities. Netflix Company is a hook for an, employing the value chain analysis model in order to gain competitive advantage over its competitors. The company’s. Functionalist View of the Family Essay. mobility, this is where the family moved to where the essay review, work would be, and a nuclear family could move easier than an extended family, and Social mobility, this is how to write sentence for an argumentative, where people could move from darden essay review, their ascribed status to their achieved status. Consequently the extended family was replaced by the nuclear family in order to fit the needs of society.
Two functionalists who believed that the essays on helen, family was important and studied the family were Willmott and Young. Darden Essay! They believed that the family was becoming a joint. The model is a large circle representing the critical essay of the story of an hour, family. Around the outside of the large circle are small circles representing church, work, school, extended family and friends. The strength and nature of how the family interacts with these outside forces is darden, demonstrated using different connecting lines.
This family has a strong connection with work as both parents are very career oriented. Dad especially is up for a promotion. The connection with school would be tenuous and stressful for the F.B. kids. Values and Actions of a Role Model Essay. Similarly, I grew up in an African-American Baptist church as well. Of Confederation Essay! My family and educators has instilled in me values, knowledge, wisdom and understanding of spiritual and natural things. As a positive role model, my family has taught me how to be a self-motivator and make a difference in society. Darden Review! Likewise, Martin Luther King was influenced by President Benjamin E. Mays, with spiritual development, encouraging him to view Christianity as a potential force for progressive social change (Carson, 2000) Essay Professional Value and Ethics. times that when a person will have to essays on helen make decisions that can either go against professional values to satisfy a need, or adhere to the value and find an alternative to satisfying that need.
To be successful in a career it is essay review, important to identify professional values and use those values in the workplace. The example that Urbany et al. described involved a person deciding to write a hook essay go against professional values and implementing an essay review, illegal practice in the company. This person suffered in free essay on the, the end through. 180. Money has a time value and the value today of future cash flow is referred to as the present value (Brealey, Myers Marcus, 2003). Darden Review! The present value of a future amount is worth less the longer one waits for it (Brealey, Myers Marcus, 2003). The future value is the amount of money that an investment made today (the present value) will grow to by some future date.
Since money has time value, we naturally expect the future value to be greater than the present value. The difference between. Are Values Subjective or Objective? Essay. individual might desire different things. This is what makes some of the values subjective because we as Human Beings we refer pleasure rather than pain, so all our desire therefore seek pleasure.
Objective values are values that hold worthy of desire no matter if we actually desire them or not , a good example of this is ‘life’, life is valuable no matter whether you desire to write a hook sentence argumentative life or not. If this is the case then we value good because there are good not because we desire them , as we don’t have.
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Essay Form and Structure: How to Write an Essay. Do you have an essay to write and do not know where or how to essay, begin? Before you get started, there are a few things you must know about writing an essay. On Why Financially Ne? Forming and structuring an essay review, essay are necessary for a well developed essay. Here are the steps to do this. 2. Narrow the subject into a workable topic. Subject vs. Topic. For example you could have a broad subject such as politics or dogs. The topic has a narrow focus within the subject, such as the cost of running a campaign or the of the one of the three basic parts of a persuasive, training of a police dog. You will need to darden, find a subject.
3. You can find a subject in many ways. You can do so by, Freewriting (brainstorming) Looking in a dictionary Reading a Newspaper or magazine Looking in a journal or notebook Searching the internet. 4. When choosing a topic think about the impact you will have on the reader and allow yourself time for consideration. It should have an impact on the reader by being informative, entertaining, influential, emotional, or interesting. You’ll want to know about the topic. That means that you’ll have to do research and read about the topic. You will want to shape the essay of the of an, topic to the appropriate length for darden essay, your essay. 6. Narrowing a Topic . Some ways to narrow a topic are by:
Freewriting Making a list Examine subject from of rights, different angles Clustering. 7. Once you’ve narrowed your Topic, you’ll want to establish a purpose for your essay. A few of the darden essay, purposes are: To express feelings or ideas with the reader and/or relate experiences. To inform the reader of something To persuade the reader to think or act a certain way.
You may want to think about free on the bill of rights, entertaining the reader. 8. Next you want to think about developing your topic . You can do the essay, following: Freewriting List Write. Jot down everything you know about the topic in on helen keller a short list. Questions. Ask yourself questions, and answer those questions.
Cluster. Start with the essential ideas and then connect ideas in a cluster. Write a letter to yourself or someone else explaining exactly what you know about darden essay, a particular idea or topic. Keep a journal. Jot down things during the day that pertain to your topic as your thinking about developing your essay. Collaborate. Talk with other people about your topic see if they know anything that you may want to critical of the hour, use in your essay. The thesis tells what an darden essay review, essay is essays going to be about. It is a brief opinion on a limited subject, and it usually appears at the end of the introduction . The purpose of the Thesis Statement is to let the readers know the writer’s topic, and what opinion the writer has about the topic. It provides focus for essay, the essay; it gives the reader an constitution and articles, idea of what you’re going to be discussing in the essay. It guides the reader; it tells the reader exactly how you are going to be developing this particular topic.
It presents the main idea of the essay. You should always begin your writing with a working thesis statement. This helps you to organize our ideas and set u the darden review, structure of the essay. Once your have your thesis, you may want to start with an essay map. The essay map breaks the thesis down into parts to be discussed in the body. Critical Of The Story Of An Hour? The e ssay map is generally one or two sentences that follow the thesis statement.
The essay must be grammatically parallel. 5. The thesis must express an attitude or opinion towards topic. For example, this is review a poor thesis statement: --There are many differences between a Lexus and a Lincoln.— A better thesis statement includes the free on the of rights, Essay Map that precedes the darden essay, thesis statement. For example, this thesis statement is brief and is not one of the three basic of a essay, specific: --Its aerodynamic design, its V-6 engine, and its luxury appointments make the Lexus a mechanically and aesthetically superior car than the Lincoln.— --Apartment living is preferable to dorm living because it’s cheaper, quieter, and more luxurious.—
Tip: Have your essay explain exactly why apartment living is preferable to dorm living. 7. A Good Thesis Statement avoids: Broad statements will lead to vague and undeveloped essays Factual statements deal on essay review, facts, there’s nothing to constitution essay, explain or develop as when you have a specific opinion on a brief subject. Review? Announcements. Avoid b road statements. A thesis that is a brief essay do i need financially ne too broad will cause the writer to present a superficial discussion that will never get beyond the obvious. For example : -- The role in women in state politics has changed drastically the last ten years.— Improved Thesis. Be specific and concise. For example: -- The leadership role of women in state politics has changed drastically in the past ten years.— Factual statements leave the writer with nothing to say, with no way to develop it.
For example, a poor statement: -- The water department is considering a rate increase—. Better statement would be: -- The water department’s proposed rate increase is not needed—. --I will explain why our board of education should consider magnet schools.— --This essay will describe the best way to choose a major.— --Our board of darden review education should consider magnet schools.—
--Students who are unsure of how to choose a major should follow my advice.— --It is interesting to consider the a brief essay need financially, various meanings of love.— --We apply the work love to a broad spectrum of emotions.— 12. Evaluating Thesis Statement.
Determine whether these thesis statements are broad, factual, announcements, or vague, and then think about re-writing them. -- I think Men in Black is a really interesting movie that everyone would enjoy—. This is a vague statement. -- My essay will tell you how to apply for a college loan with the least amount of trouble—. This is an announcement . -- Having a close friend to talk to is very important—. This is darden a broad statement. Catch the readers attention Lead into the topic Present your thesis (main idea) Providing background information on your thesis statement, some ways to do that is by: Tell a relevant story Explain why topic is important to your reader Present interesting images or use description that will keep readers interested. Free Bill? Present an exciting problem or raise a provocative question.
Present an darden, opposing viewpoint. Body paragraphs will have two parts; topic sentence and supporting details . Develop by examples, contrast, definition, classification Body paragraphs must relate to thesis. It must present facts and details to validate thesis. It will also present detail that supports, explains, etc…the idea given in your thesis. Which One Of Basic Parts Essay? It will present the material to darden essay, convince your reader of the validity of essay of the hour your thesis. This is important because the essay review, body paragraphs are the core of the essay. A good, solid, developed body paragraph explains and develops your thesis statement.
The topic sentence provides focus by presenting the point the body paragraph will deal with, and usuallly appears at the beginning of the paragraph . How To Write Argumentative Essay? This point will be something to support the thesis. It is darden essay important to develop each of your topic sentences with enough detail. Supporting details involve all the information that explains the on why do i, idea presented in the topic sentence. These details can be developed through description, narration, illustration, process analysis [explains step-by-step how something is done], comparison or contrast definition [to compare in order to show unlikeness or differences], classification, etc. Avoid one or two sentence paragraphs. These are seen in business writing; however in darden review academic essays an average length body paragraph ranges from 7-12 sentences, you want to have fully developed body paragraphs. Avoid ending a paragraph with a new idea.
Avoid repeating the same idea in different ways. Avoid including more than one idea in a body paragraph. 7. Conclusion (asides from your body paragraph, you will also have a conclusion) This is the last paragraph of your essay. It leaves the of the following is not basic essay, reader with an overall reaction. It summarizes the main ideas of the essay.
Gives the darden essay review, reader something to think about. One Of Of A Persuasive? It looks back or looks ahead. Review? You’ll want to write for an argumentative, move the reader to darden, action. The conclusion influence’s the reader’s final impression. The same care that goes into the introduction should also go into the conclusion. It is the last impression the reader has of your essay. Avoid a conclusion that is out of proportion to the rest of your essay. Free Essay Bill? The conclusion paragraph should be the same approximate length of your body paragraph. Avoid a conclusion that is darden not suited to your audience, purpose, or thesis. Avoid expressions like ‘in conclusion,’ ‘in summary,’ ‘to summarize,’ and ‘in closing.’ These are completely unnecessary for how to write for an essay, the conclusion.
Once you have your thesis statement, you’re ready to start Planning the Essay . You are going to Outline and Draft your paper. Outlining helps organize ideas before drafting. Outlines can be detailed or sketchy, formal or scratch. Long writing such as thesis paper length requires detail, while brief pieces such as an in-class essay can be sketchy. The formal outline is the most detailed and structured outline. It allows you to plot main points and darden essay review, major supporting details. Generally is written in full complete sentences. Essays? Main ideas are designated with Roman numerals. Supporting details are designated by darden essay capital letters.
Points to develop further are designated by Arabic numbers. Theses are generally done not with complete sentences but with fragments. Writers who prefer only main points in outline will use the scratch outline. Writers who prefer not to use much detail will use the free essay bill of rights, scratch outline. Writers who prefer developing ideas as they draft, will use the darden essay, scratch outline. This is for writers who find a more detailed outline constraining and prefer to have this outline. It begins with an idea in the center of the trunk of the tree, and the branches will be focused off the trunk so one can see the relationships between the need financially, main idea and the sub ideas. Darden Essay Review? Write the essay on why financially, central idea; Main points= First branches. Add additional branches as sub points.
Once you have your outline, you’re now ready to start your draft. The first draft of darden your essay is referred to as a rough draft. It Forms a base that can be shaped into the final product. If you decide to use the detailed formal outline, you’ll require less time in how to a hook essay organization when drafting as compared to sketchy outlines. If you get stuck into writing the draft, skip the troublesome section and review, move. If trouble arises, skip the introduction and go back to it later. The important thing is to complete the draft of the essay. And Articles Of Confederation Essay? Select an idea you are comfortable with and start with that topic.
You may reshape your topic to something easier to write about. Essay? If you get stuck, leave your work for a while, and a brief on why ne, come back to your essay draft later with a fresh perspective. Easy Ways to Write a Thesis Statement. by Virginia Kearney 16. How To Write A Successful History Essay For Highschoolers. How to Write the Introduction of an Essay. by wayseeker 18. by Nadia Archuleta 4. How to Write a Visual Analysis Paper.
by Virginia Kearney 16. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Ahh, a philosophy major? I enjoyed my one philosophy class back in the school days. Darden Essay Review? I participated in a few debates myself. Which Of The Following Parts Of A Persuasive Essay? My most famous one was the right to bear arms.
The structure of an essay is basically the same: outline, topic, thesis statement, intro, body, and conclusion. To meet the darden essay review, writing intensive prereqs at my college, this is how to write a hook sentence argumentative essay how it was taught. The different types of darden essay review essays varied. How To A Hook For An? There is the argumentative essay, persuasive essay, narrative essay, informative essay, etc., and each had their own requirements. I remember now that it was during these long sleepless, researching and essay writing nights that I discovered I liked writing. I wish you the review, best in your philosophy paper and would like to read it if and a brief on why do i, when you post it.
PhiMaths ATB 5 years ago from Charlotte, NC, USA. I studied philosophy, and their was often discussion about the disagreements between how english students are taught to write as compared to philosophy students, including everything from word choice to referencing convention. I am working on an article about writing philosophy paper, and hope to have it up in the next few days. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Thanks for your visit. This came from notes taken from one of essay review my English classes at College, a requirement I needed for my Associates degree. It helped me greatly in all my essay writing, which earned me all A's :) PhiMaths ATB 5 years ago from Charlotte, NC, USA. Some good advice though some of these points tend to vary quite a bit from field to field. Essay Of Rights? I can't say that I write this way at all, though my method is not standard.
A good start for anyone with little experience. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Thank you for the compliment. Review? Glad you stopped by. htodd 5 years ago from United States. That is great post. That is nice article on how to write an essay. Evi Lopez 6 years ago from Sunny Florida. Thank you for free on the bill of rights, your visit and darden, comment. Brenda Barnes 6 years ago from America-Broken But Still Beautiful.
What a great tutorial. Very well done indeed Faithful Daughter. Evi Lopez 6 years ago from Sunny Florida. I am glad to hear that this has helped you. Thank you for your comment.
This is a very helpful hub. I am currently working on my Bachelor's degree and I have to write a thesis statement on a paper that is due at the end of the session. I have been trying to figure out free bill what and how to write my thesis and this hub has proved to be extremely helpful. Thank you. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and darden essay, respective owners.
Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. On Helen Keller? HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and darden, advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and free essay bill of rights, others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and darden review, respective owners.